Wednesday, 13 June 2012

20 Rakaat Taraweeh



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20 Rakaat Taraweeh


Introduction


For the sake of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam), Allah Ta'ala has graced this Ummah with His boundless benevolence, upon being thankful for which, the Lord Almighty has promised to increase His bounties even more.  The blessed month of Ramadhan is also one among these priceless bounties of Allah Ta'ala.  The doors of Allah’s mercy are kept open this month and the worshippers of Allah Ta'ala freely benefit from it.  Allah Ta’ala has selected Ramadhan for the revelation of His Word, the Holy Quran.  Accordingly, He has also shown His preference for this month over other months by mentioning its name in the Holy Quran.
شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَان- 
The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion (of right and wrong).  Surah Al Baqarah (2:185) 
With the coming of the month of Ramadhan, Allah Ta’ala floods the world with His mercy.  The doors of the sky are opened.  The doors of Jannah are opened.  The devils are chained.  (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith No. 2548).  In this way, an atmosphere conducive to piety is created.  Now every night, a special announcement is made for for those who resolve to perform virtuous acts:  O you who desire good!  Go ahead with good deeds.  For those who desire transgressions, it is said: O you who desire evil!  Refrain from evil.  (Jame' Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 648). 
In spite of being self-sufficient, only as generosity for the worshippers, a call is given from the court of Allah Ta'ala:  Is there anyone who supplicates that his supplication be accepted?  Is there anyone who desires Maghfirah (forgiveness) that he (or she) may be forgiven?  Is there anyone who repents that his repentance be accepted?  (Sahih Muslim, Hadith No. 1810)
With the coming of Ramadhan itself, there is a gush in Allah’s mercy.  Allah’s mercy is manifested everywhere.  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is the mercy of Allah Ta'ala for the whole universe and as such, every moment, Allah’s mercy is expressed through Him.  Granting the mercy of the Lord to the Ummah, apart from the Fardh fasts of Ramadhan, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) also decreed other forms of worship like Taraweeh, Itikaaf and exhorted the Ummah to give charity.  He instructed the Ummah to recite the Holy Quran and listen to it and gave glad tidings of great reward on the performance of all these acts.  All these actually mirror the affection and generosity of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) on this Ummah.  One among the blessed attributes of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is His generosity and benevolence.  In the month of Ramadhan, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) became even more generous.  There is a Hadith in Sahih Bukhari:
عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَجْوَدَ النَّاسِ وَكَانَ أَجْوَدُ مَا يَكُونُ فِي رَمَضَانَ حِينَ يَلْقَاهُ جِبْرِيل-
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be well pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) was the most generous of all and His generosity would be at its highest point in the month of Ramadhan, when Jibreel (peace be upon him) would come to Him.  Each night of Ramadhan, Jibreel (May peace be upon him) would come and recite the Holy Quran.  Verily, the generosity of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is more than the winds which benefit.  (Sahih Bukhari, Vol 1, Pg No: 3) 
Imam Baihaqi has recorded a Hadith in his Shu'ab Ul Iman:
عن ابن عباس ، قال كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا دخل شهر رمضان أطلق كل أسير ، وأعطى كل سائل-
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be well pleased with him), he said: When the month of Ramadhan came, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) released every prisoner and would give to everyone who asked.  (Baihaqui, Shu’ab Ul Iman, Hadith No: 3475)
Allah Ta'ala has made the fasts of Ramadhan Fardh (obligatory).  Its rules have been briefly mentioned in the Holy Quran and left the details and interpretation of them to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  Allah Ta'ala has given full authority to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) to specify the rules and decide their reward.  As the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is the most generous in Ramadhan, He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) decreed special forms of worship in Ramadhan and gave glad tidings of special reward on their performance. 
The reward of an optional (Nafl) is equal to that of an obligation (Fardh), the reward of a Fardh is increased seventy-fold; the reward for providing means to a fasting person to break the fast is a drink from the Houz e Kouthar.  There is promise to increase a Momin's sustenance (Rizq) (Shu‘abul Iman, Hadith No. 3455).  Those who perform Itikaaf are rewarded for other virtuous acts, etc. (Zujajatul Masabeeh, Vol. 1, Pg. No. 590) 
The special reward for these virtuous acts of Ramadhan has been mentioned in the Hadith only.  No verse of the Holy Quran mentions this.  This is only the generosity of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) and the result of His benevolence.  A special virtuous act in Ramadhan is Taraweeh.


The excellence of Taraweeh

There is a Hadith in Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan Nasai, Jame Tirmidhi, Sunan Ibn Majah, etc.: 
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَنْ قَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِه-ِ
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (May Allah be well pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: Whoever stands in Salaat in the nights of Ramadhan in a state of Iman and sincerity (Ikhlas), all his (or her) past sins are forgiven.


Salaat Ut Taraweeh in Sahih Bukhari

 Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with her), she says:  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) was offering Salaat in His room at night and the wall of the room was of medium height.  The Sahabah saw the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) and offered Salaat behind Him (taking Him as their Imam).  Morning came and the Sahabah mentioned this to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  The next night the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) was offering Salaat.  The Sahabah saw Him and started offering Salaat behind Him.  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) did this for 2 or 3 nights.  At last the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) remained in His room and did not come.  In the morning when the Sahabah mentioned this, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: I fear that this Salaat will be  declared Fardh for you.  In another version of the same Hadith, the following words are given:
فتعجزوا عنها
Translation: Then you will not be able to offer it.
(Sahih Bukhari, Vol 1, Hadith No: 729; Hadith No: 924; Hadith No: 1129; Hadith No: 2012)
This Hadith is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari at more than 3 places.  This Hadith has mention of offering of Salaat, but there is no mention of the number of Raka’at.  The interpreter of Sahih Bukhari, the author of Fath Ul Bari, Imam Ibn Hajr Asqalani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has clarified in Al Talkhees that here, the number of Raka’at was 20. 
(Al Talkhees, Tabe ul Kitab Us Salaat, Hadith No: 540)
Imam Ibn Hajr Makki Haitami (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has mentioned one Hadith about the number of the Raka’at of Taraweeh. 
عشرون ركعة"في كل ليلة من رمضان بنية قيام رمضان او سنة تراويح او صلوة التراويح....لما صح انه صلي الله علي وسلم صلي التراويح ليالي اربعا فصلوها معه ثم تأخر وصلاها في بيته باقي الشهر وقال خشيت ان تفرض عليكم فتعجزوا عنها- 
Translation: (It has) “20 Raka’at” every night of Ramadhan, with the intention of Qiyaame Ramadhan or Taraweeh, because there is a rigorously-authenticated (Sahih) Hadith that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) offered Taraweeh for 4 nights and the Sahabah followed Him (in prayer).  Then the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) did not come out of His room and offered it in His room for the rest of the month and said: I fear that this Salaat will be made Fardh (obligatory) for you, then you will not be able to offer it. 
Allama Muhammad bin Muhammad Akmaluddin Babarti (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in detail about 20 Raka’at Taraweeh in ‘Inaya Sharh Hidayah:
عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً ، فَلَمَّا كَانَتْ اللَّيْلَةُ الثَّانِيَةُ اجْتَمَعَ النَّاسُ فَخَرَجَ وَصَلَّى بِهِمْ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً ، فَلَمَّا كَانَتْ اللَّيْلَةُ الثَّالِثَةُ كَثُرَالنَّاسُ فَلَمْ يَخْرُجْ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ وَقَالَ : عَرَفْت اجْتِمَاعَكُمْ لَكِنِّي خَشِيت أَنْ تُكْتَبَ عَلَيْكُمْ فَكَانَ النَّاسُ يُصَلُّونَهَا فُرَادَى إلَى زَمَنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ، فَقَالَ عُمَرُ :إنِّي أَرَى أَنْ أَجْمَعَ النَّاسَ عَلَى إمَامٍ وَاحِدٍ ، فَجَمَعَهُمْ عَلَى أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ فَصَلَّى بِهِمْ خَمْسَ تَرْوِيحَاتٍ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً . 
Translation: It is narrated that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) came one night and offered 20 Raka’at.  Then when the next night came, the Sahabah gathered.  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) came and led the Sahabah in 20 Raka’at.  Then when the 3rd night came, the Sahabah gathered in large numbers, but the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) did not come.  He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: I know of your gathering (for Me), but I fear that this Salaat will be declared Fardh for you.  Then the Sahabah, until the time of Hadhrat Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) offered this Salaat individually and separately.  Then Hadhrat Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) said: I think it is better that I gather the people behind a single Imam.  Then he gathered the people with Hadhrat Ubai bin Ka’ab as the Imam and he led the people in 20 Raka’at with 5 breaks. 
(Al ‘Inaya, Sharh Hidayah, Kitab Us Salaat, Fasl Fi Qiyami Shahri Ramadhan)
All these Hadith and Traditions show that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) offered Salaat Ut Taraweeh with congregation for 3 or 4 days.  Then to ensure that this does not become Fardh on the Ummah, did not come again.  According to Imam Ibn Hajr Makki haitami (May Allah shower His mercy on him), the rst of the month, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa salalm) offered Salaat Ut Taraweeh in His house.  This shows that offering Taraweeh with congregation is established by the practice of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  Also, when the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) saw the Sahabah  offering Taraweeh with congregation, He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) appreciated it.
As given in a Marfu’ Hadith in Sunan Abu Dawood:
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (May Allah be well pleased with him), he said:  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) came and saw that, in Ramadhan, the Sahabah are offering Salaat in a corner of the Masjid.  He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) asked:  What are these people doing?  It was told:  These are those people who have not memorized the Holy Quran perfectly.  Hadhrat Ubai Bin Ka‘ab is leading them in Salaat and they are offering Salaat in his lead.  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:  They are doing right and what a good deed this is!  (Sunan Abu Dawood, Hadith No. 1379)


First Hadith

20 Raka’at in Taraweeh – The practice of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) and His companions
First Hadith
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh

The various Hadith, which have been related to Taraweeh, with slight changes in wording, have been mentioned.  These establish offering Taraweeh in congregation.  Now, the Holy Prophet’s (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) offering 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh is being related on the authority of canons of Hadith, commentaries on those canons and canons of Fiqh (jurisprudence).
There is a Hadith:
عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ : كَانَ النَّبِىُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُصَلِّى فِى شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ  بِعِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً وَالْوِتْرَ.
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be well pleased with them) that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and Witr.






20 Raka’at Taraweeh – The custom of the Sahabah
 We learn from the Hadith of Sunan Abu Dawood that the Sahabah offered Taraweeh as a congregational prayer in the Masjid.  20 Raka’at of Taraweeh have beeen mentioned in various Hadith that in the era of Hadhrat ‘Umar, Hadhrat ‘Uthman and Hadhrat ‘Ali (May Allah be well pleased with them), 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh was offered.

This is that blessed era in which most of the Sahabah were present and people would come from all over the world to them and learn the teachings of Islam.  They would value the customs and the practices of the Sahabah.  In the following lines, we will learn how these beacons of guidance offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.

Second Hadith
 Evidence of 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh in the era of Hadhrat Umar Al Farooq
In the era of Hadhrat ‘Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him), people would offer 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.  As mentioned in this Hadith:
عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ رُومَانَ قَالَ : كَانَ النَّاسُ يَقُومُونَ فِى زَمَانِ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ رَضِىَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ فِى رَمَضَانَ بِثَلاَثٍ وَعِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً. 

Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Yazid bin Rooman (May Allah be well pleased with him) that he said:  In the era of Hadhrat ‘Umar Bin Khattab (May Allah be well pleased with him) people used to offer 23 Raka’at (20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and 3 Witr).
 Allama Badruddin ‘Aini (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in the interpretation of this Hadith:
 قال ابن عبد البر هذا محمول على أن الثلاث للوتر
 Translation: Allama Ibn Abdul Barr (May Allah shower His mercy on him) said: "23 Raka’at means 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and 3 of Witr."  (Umdatul Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Ut Taraweeh, Vol 8, Pg No: 245)



Third Hadith
Hadhrat Umar's (May Allah be well pleased with him) command for offering 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh
Hadhrat ‘Umar ordered the Imams who led the Salaat to lead the people in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.  There is a Hadith in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba:
 عن يحيى بن سعيد أن عمر بن الخطاب أمر رجلا يصلي بهم عشرين ركعة.
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Yahya bin Sa‘eed that Hadhrat Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) commanded a person to offer 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.  (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol 2, Pg No: 285, Chapter No: 227, Hadith No: 3; Tuhfatul Ahwazi, Bab Ma Ja'a FI Shahri Ramadhan)

Fourth Hadith 
Imam Abdur Razzaq, who is the teacher of Imam Bukhari's teachers, narrates a Hadith on the authority of Hadhrat Saib Bin Yazid in his Musannaf:
عن السائب بن يزيد قال : كنا ننصرف من القيام على عهد عمر وقد دنا فروع الفجر ، وكان القيام على عهد عمر ثلاثة وعشرين ركعة.
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Saib bin Yazid (May Allah be well pleased with him), he says: In the era of ‘Umar, we would return from the night’s prayers when the time for Fajr would be near and in his era, the Salaat of the night would be 23 Raka’at (i.e. 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and 3 of Witr) 
Apart from 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh, this Hadith establishes that long Raka’at and intense recitation of the Holy Quran was the habit of the Sahabah.
The Hadith of Hadhrat Saib Bin Yazid (May Allah be well pleased with him) and the opinions of the Muhadditheen (Hadith experts)
Imam Nawawi (May Allah be well pleased with him) has mentioned this Hadith as rigorously-authenticated (Sahih) in his book "Khulasatul Ahkam"
رَوَاهُ الْبَيْهَقِيّ بِإِسْنَاد صَحِيح .

Translation: Imam Baihaqui has narrated this Hadith using a rigorously-authenticated (Sahih) chain of narration.
(Khulasatul Ahkaam, Kitab Us Salaat, Hadith No: 1961)
This opinion of Imam Nawawi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has been related by Imam Zail‘ai (May Allah shower His mercy on him) in “Nasab Ur Raya Fi Takhreejil Ahadithil Hidayah,”  Allama Ibn Hamam in Fath Ul Qadeer, Allama Badruddin ‘Aini (May Allah shower His mercy on him) in ‘Umdatul Qari, Imam Suyuti in AL Havi Lil Fatawa, Mulla ‘Ali Qari (May Allah shower His mercy on him) in Mirqaatul Mafateeh Sharh Mishkaatul Masabeeh.




Fifth Hadith
There is a Hadith in Imam Baihaqui’s Sunan e Sughra and Ma’arifatus Sunan:
عن السائب بن يزيد ، قال : كنا نقوم في زمان عُمَر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه بعشرين ركعة والوتر-
Translation: Hadhrat Saib bin Yazid (May Allah be well pleased with him) says: In the era of Hadhrat Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him), we used to offer 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and 3 Raka’at of Witr.
 Allama Kamaaluddeen Muhammad, more famously known as Ibn Hamam (May Allah shower His mercy on him), the author of Fath Ul Qadeer writes after relating this Hadith:
Translation: Imam Nawawi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in Khulasatul Ahkaam that the chain of narration of this Hadith is rigorously authenticated (Sahih).

Sixth Hadith

There is a Hadith in Jame’ Ul Ahadith Wal Maraseel and Kanzul Ummal:



عن أبي بن كعب أن عمر بن الخطاب أمره أن يصلي بالليل في رمضان فقال: إن الناس يصومون النهار ولا يحسنون أن يقرأوا فلو قرأت عليهم بالليل، فقال: يا أمير المؤمنين هذا شيء لم يكن، فقال: قد علمت ولكنه حسن فصلى بهم عشرين ركعة.  (ابن منيع).

Translation: Hadhrat Ubai bin Ka‘ab (May Allah be well pleased with him) narrates that Hadhrat Umar commanded him to lead the Salaat Ut Taraweeh in Ramadhan saying that people fast in the day, because of which they cannot recite the Holy Quran properly, it would be better if you recite the Holy Quran in Taraweeh. 
He requested: O Commander of the faithful, this is a deed which has not been performed in congregation until now.  He (i.e. Hadhrat Umar) said: Yes, I know that, but this is better.
Thus, Hadhrat Ubai bin Ka’ab (May Allah be well pleased with him) led the 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.  (Kanzul Ummal, Hadith No: 23471) 
Hadhrat Ubai’s (May Allah be well pleased with him) saying, “This is a deed, which has not been done in congregation until now” means that Taraweeh with congregation for the whole month had not been performed although before this Taraweeh was offered in congregation off and on, as previously mentioned in the Hadith that for 3 or 4 nights, the Sahabah offered Taraweeh in the lead of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam), then later a group of Sahabah sometimes offered Taraweeh in the lead of Hadhrat Ubai Bin Ka‘ab and the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) saw it and appreciated it.





Seventh Hadith  
20 Raka’at of Taraweeh in the era of Hadhrat Uthman (May Allah be well pleased with him)

عَنِ السَّائِبِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ قَالَ : كَانُوا يَقُومُونَ عَلَى عَهْدِ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ رَضِىَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ فِى شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ بِعِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً  قَالَ وَكَانُوا يَقْرَءُونَ بِالْمِئِينِ ، وَكَانُوا يَتَوَكَّئُونَ عَلَى عُصِيِّهِمْ فِى عَهْدِ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ رَضِىَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ مِنْ شِدَّةِ الْقِيَامِ.

Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Saib bin Yazid (May Allah be well pleased with him) that in the era of Hadhrat ‘Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) people used to offer 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and recite those Surah, which have 100 verses and in the era of Hadhrat ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan (May Allah be well pleased with him), they would support themselves with a staff because of the long Raka’at.
(Sunan Kubra Lil Baihaqui, Hadith No: 4801; Umdatul Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Ul Adhaan; Mirqatul Mafateeh Sharh Mishkatul Masabeeh, Kitab Us Salaat, Bab Qiyami Shahri Ramadhan) 
Imam Nawawi (May Allah be well pleased with him) has mentioned this Hadith as rigorously-authenticated (Sahih) in his book "Khulasatul Ahkam"
رَوَاهُ الْبَيْهَقِيّ بِإِسْنَاد صَحِيح .
Translation: Imam Baihaqui has narrated this Hadith using a rigorously-authenticated (Sahih) chain of narration.
(Khulasatul Ahkaam, Kitab Us Salaat, Hadith No: 1961)

Mulla Ali Qari (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has also mentioned this judgment of Imam Nawawi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) in "Mirqatul Mifateeh", Kitab Us
Salaat, Bab Qiyami Shahri Ramadhan."
(Mirqatul Mafateeh, Kitab Us Salaat, Bab Qiyami shahri Ramadhan)





Eighth Hadith
20 Raka’at of Taraweeh - The command of Hadhrat Ali 
There is a Hadith in Imam Baihaqui's Sunan Kubra and in ‘Umdatul Qari, Sharh Sahih Bukhari:

Hadhrat Abu Abdur Rahman Sulami narrates on the authority of Hadhrat Ali (May Allah be well pleased with him), that in the month of Ramadhan, he (i.e. Hadhrat Ali) summoned the Huffaz (those who memorized the Holy Quran) and commanded one Hafidh to lead others in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.
(Sunan Kubra Lil Baihaqui, Hadith No: 4804; Zujajatul Masabeeh, Vol 1, Pg No: 366; Umdatul Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Ut Tahajjud; Tuhfatul Ahwazi, Bab Maa Ja'a Fi Qiyami Shahri Ramadhan)






Ninth Hadith
Command to offer Taraweeh with 5 breaks 
There is a Hadith in Imam Baihaqui’s Sunan Kubra, in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, in Kanzul Ummal, etc.

عَنْ أَبِى الْحَسْنَاءِ : أَنَّ عَلِىَّ بْنَ أَبِى طَالِبٍ رَضِىَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَمَرَ رَجُلاً أَنْ يُصَلِّىَ بِالنَّاسِ خَمْسَ تَرْوِيحَاتٍ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً.

Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abul Husna (May Allah be well pleased with him) that Hadhrat Ali (May Allah be well pleased with him) commanded a Hafidh to lead the people in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh with 5 breaks.
(Sunan Kubra Lil Baihaqui, Hadith No: 4805; Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol 2, Pg No: 285, Bab 227, Hadith No: 2; Kanzul Ummal, Kitab Us Salaat, Hadith No: 23474; Umdatul Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Ut Taraweeh; Tuhfatul Ahwazi, Bab Ma Ja'a Fi Qiyami Shahri Ramadhan)
One narrator in the aforementioned Hadith’s chain of narration is ‘Amr Bin Qais.  Allama Ibn Turkmani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in Jawahir Un Naqi:
Translation: I think ‘Amr Bin Qais is ‘Amr Bin Qais Malai.  Imam Ahmed, Hadhrat Yahya, Hadhrat Abu Hatim, Hadhrat Abu Zara‘a and other Imams and Muhadditheen have declared him reliable.
It is imperative to act upon the Sunnah of the first four caliphs 
It has been established by these highly authoritative and reliable canons of Hadith that the First Four Caliphs not only offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh themselves but also commanded others to do so.  In Islamic law, the practice of the caliphs has its own legal status.  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) has commanded the Ummah to adopt their Sunnah.

َعَلَيْكُمْ بِسُنَّتِي وَسُنَّةِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ الْمَهْدِيِّينَ عَضُّوا عَلَيْهَا بِالنَّوَاجِذِ- 
Translation: Bind yourself to my Sunnah and to the Sunnah of my Caliphs and hold fast to it with your teeth.
(Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol 1, Pg No: 5, Hadith No: 42)
Muhaddith-e-Deccan Hadhrat Abul Hasanaat Hadhrat Syed Abdullah Shah Sahab Naqshbandi Qadri Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes:

ان مجموع عشرين ركعة في التراويح سنة مؤكدة لانه مما واظب عليه الخلفاء,وقد سبق ان سنة الخلفاء ايضًا لازم الاتباع وتاركها آثم-
Translation: A total of 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh is a Sunnah Maukkada (Compulsory Sunnah) because this one of those acts which have been regularly performed by the Caliphs and it has been mentioned that it is imperative to follow the Sunnah of the Caliphs also and the one who leaves them is a sinner.  (Haashiya Zujajatul Masabeeh, Vol. 1, Pg. No. 366) 
Other Sahabah and the Tabie'en (the successors and the students) also offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.  The Hadith about this follow






Tenth Hadith 
Other Sahabah also offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh 
20 Raka’at Taraweeh in Madina Al Munawwarah 
There is a Hadith in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba

عن عبد العزيز بن رفيع قال كان أبي بن كعب يصلي بالناس في رمضان بالمدينة عشرين ركعة ويوتر بثلاث.
Translation: Hadhrat Abdul Aziz bin Raf‘ee says: Hadhrat Ubai bin Ka‘ab (May Allah be well pleased with him) used to lead the people in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh in the month of Ramadhan and used to lead the people in 3 Raka’at of Witr.
(Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol 2, Pg No: 285, Bab #227, Hadith No: 5; Tuhfatul Ahwazi, Bab Ma Ja'a Fi Qiyami Shahri Ramadhan)





Eleventh Hadith
The practice of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas’ud (May Allah be well pleased with him) 
In ‘Umdatul Qari, Allama Badruddin ‘Aini has narrated a Hadith on the authority of Imam A‘amash in which it is clearly reported that Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud used to lead people in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.
عن الأعمش عن زيد بن وهب قال كان عبد الله بن مسعود يصلي لنا في شهر رمضان فينصرف وعليه ليل قال الأعمش كان يصلي عشرين ركعة ويوتر بثلاث- 
Translation: Hadhrat A‘amash narrates on the authority of Hadhrat Zaid bin Wahb (May Allah be well pleased with him) that he said:  In the month of Ramadhan, Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (May Allah be well pleased with him) used to lead us and Imam A‘amash narrates that he used to lead the people in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and 3 Raka’at of Witr.
(Umdatul Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Ut Taraweeh, Vol 8, Pg No: 246)



The Sahabah's consensus on 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh
وفي المغني عن علي أنه أمر رجلا أن يصلي بهم في رمضان بعشرين ركعة قال وهذا كالإجماع- 
Translation: And in Mughni there is a Hadith of Hadhrat Ali (May Allah be well pleased with him) that he (Hadhrat Ali) commanded a person to lead the people in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh in Ramadhan.  In the explanation of this Hadith, Imam ‘Aini (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes: This practice of the Sahabah is like their consensus.
(Umdatul Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Ul Tahajjud)
Imam Zail‘ai (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes:
Translation: Our proof is the Hadith which Imam Baihaqui (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has narrated with a rigorously-authenticated chain of narration that the Sahabah would offer 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh in the caliphate of Hadhrat ‘Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him).  This practice continued in the eras of Hadhrat ‘Uthman and Hadhrat ‘Ali (May Allah be well pleased with him) and in this way the Sahabah came to a consensus (on 20 Raka’at Taraweeh).
Hadhrat Mulla Ali Qari (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in his commentary on Mishkaat Sharh Mirqaat:
لكن أجمع الصحابة على أن التراويح عشرون ركعة -
Translation: Nevertheless, the Sahabah have agreed that Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at.
(Mirqat Ul Mafateeh, Kitab Us Salaat, Bab Qiyami Shahri Ramadhan)
Hadhrat Imam Sarkhisi Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in Mabsut:

وَفِي اتِّفَاقِ الصَّحَابَةِ رِضْوَانُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ عَلَى تَقْدِيرِ التَّرَاوِيحِ بِعِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً دَلِيلٌ عَلَى أَنَّ الْوَاجِبَاتِ فِي الْيَوْمِ وَاللَّيْلَةِ عِشْرُونَ رَكْعَةً وَذَلِكَ لَا يَكُونُ إلَّا إذَا كَانَ الْوِتْرُ وَاجِبًا -

Translation: The consensus of the Sahabah on 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh is the evidence that all the Fardh and Wajib Salaat in the day and night add up to 20 and this number will be completed when Witr is considered as Wajib.
(Mabsut Sarkhisi, Kitab Us Salaat, Al Faslil Awwal Fi ‘Adadir Raka’at)




None of the Sahabah objected to 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh
Imam Kasani Hanafi (May Allah be well pleased with him) writes about 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh:
وَالصَّحِيحُ قَوْلُ الْعَامَّةِ لِمَا رُوِيَ أَنَّ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ جَمَعَ أَصْحَابَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ عَلَى أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ فَصَلَّى بِهِمْ فِي كُلِّ لَيْلَةٍ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً ، وَلَمْ يُنْكِرْ أَحَدٌ عَلَيْهِ فَيَكُونُ إجْمَاعًا مِنْهُمْ عَلَى ذَلِكَ . 
Translation: There are 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.  This is the opinion of the majority of scholars and this is the authentic one because Hadhrat Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) gathered the Sahabah under the leadership (Imamat) of Hadhrat Ubai bin Ka‘ab (May Allah be well pleased with him), and he led them in 20 Raka’at every night and none of the Sahabah denied this (or objected to this), in this manner, the consensus of the Sahabah on this issue was achieved. 
(Bada‘i Us Sana‘i, Vol 1, Kitab Us Salaat, Pg No: 644)

Allama Ibn Taimiya’s clarification - The emigrant Sahabah and the natives of Madina, all agreed to 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh
Allama Ibn Taimiya writes in his Majmu’ Al Fatawa:
قَدْ ثَبَتَ أَنَّ أبي بْنَ كَعْبٍ كَانَ يَقُومُ بِالنَّاسِ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً فِي قِيَامِ رَمَضَانَ وَيُوتِرُ بِثَلَاثِ .  فَرَأَى كَثِيرٌ مِنْ الْعُلَمَاءِ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ هُوَ السُّنَّةُ ؛ لِأَنَّهُ أَقَامَهُ بَيْن الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ وَلَمْ يُنْكِرْهُ مُنْكِرٌ .
Translation: It is well established that Hadhrat Ubai bin Ka‘ab (May Allah be well pleased with him) used to lead the people in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh in the month of Ramadhan and apart from that would lead them in 3 Raka’at of Witr.  Thus, many of the ‘Ulema say that this  is a Sunnah because Hadhrat Ubai bin Ka‘ab did this in the presence of many of the Muhajirin (those who migrated from Macca to Madina) and Ansar (The natives of Madina) Sahabah and none of them opposed or denied this.
(Majmu Al Fatawa, Vol 23, Pg No: 112)

Allama Ibn Tamiya also writes:
Translation: 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh is the practice of the majority of the Muslims.  (Majmu’ Al Fatawa, Vol. 23, Pg. No. 112)
Allama Sauqi writes in Mausu‘a Fiqhiya, the encyclopedia of Fiqh, which was published the Auqaf ministry of Kuwait:
وَقَال الدُّسُوقِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُ : كَانَ عَلَيْهِ عَمَل الصَّحَابَةِ وَالتَّابِعِين-
Translation: The Sahabah and the Tabie'n have offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.
(Al Mausuatul Fiqhiya Al Kuwaitiya, Published by the Government of Kuwait, Vol 27, Pg No: 141/142)
It is mentioned in Al Fiqh Al Islami Wal Adilla under the Hanafi school of Fiqh: 
التراويح سنة.....وعدد ركعاتها عشرون ركعة، تؤدى ركعتين ركعتين، يجلس بينهما، مقدار الترويحة، بعشر تسليمات ثم يوتر بعدها، ولا يصلى الوتر بجماعة في غير شهر رمضان.  ودليلهم على العدد فعل عمر رضي الله عنه كما أخرج مسلم في صحيحه، حيث إنه جمع الناس أخيراً على هذا العدد في المسجد، ووافقه الصحابة على ذلك، ولم يخالفهم بعد الراشدين مخالف

Translation: Taraweeh is a Sunnah and there are 20 Raka’at of it, which are offered in units of 2 Raka’at.  Witr will be offered after that.  Apart from Ramadhan, Witr cannot be offered as a congregational prayer.
The practice of Hadhrat Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) is the evidence of 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh as Imam Muslim (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has clarified this in his Sahih that Hadhrat Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) gathered the Sahabah in the Masjd Nabvi to offer 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and the Sahabah also agreed with him on this and even after the Caliphs, nobody objected to this.
(Al Fiqh Al Islami Wal Adilla, Al Juz Ath Thaani, Al Faslith Thamin, An Nawafil ‘Indal Hanafiyya)





The Tabi'en too offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh

First Tradition
عن عبد الله بن قيس عن شتير بن شكل أنه كان يصلي في رمضان عشرين ركعة والوتر.

Translation: Hadhrat Abdullah bin Qais (May Allah be well pleased with him) narrates on the authority of Hadhrat Shaitar Bin Shakal (May Allah be well pleased with him) that he used to offer 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and Witr in the month of Ramadhan.
(Sunan Kubra Lil Baihaqui, Hadith No: 4803; Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol 2, Pg No: 285, Bab #227, Hadith No: 1; Mirqatul Mafateeh Sharh Mishkatul Masabeeh, Kitab Us Salaat, Bab Qiyami Shahri Ramadhan) 
Allama Ibn Hajr bin ‘Asqalani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in Tahzeeb Ut Tahzeeb about Hadhrat Shaitar bin Shakal (May Allah be well pleased with him):
وكان ثقة-
Translation: He is reliable and Imam Nasai (Author of Sunan Nasai, which is included in Sihah Sittah-The six most authentic books of Hadith) has also declared him as reliable.  Ibn Hibban has written him among the reliable narrators.  Ibn Sa‘ad has written that deductions can be made from him (i.e. his Hadith) and his narrations are less in number.  ‘Ajli says that he is a reliable narrator and is a student of Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin Mas‘ud (May Allah be well pleased with him).
(At Tahzeeb Ut Tahzeeb, Vol 4, Pg No: 273/274)
Imam Ibn Hajr ‘Asqalani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in Al Isaba Fi Ma’arifatis Sahabah:
Translation: Hadhrat Shaitar Bin Shakl ‘Abasi is a famous Taba‘ee.  Abu Moosa Madini has written that he had the honor of been in the era of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  (Al Isaba Fi Ma’arifatis Sahabah, Harfush Sheen)

Second Tradition
Hadhrat Suwaid Bin Ghaflah (May Allah be well pleased with him) offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh) 
Imam Baihaqui writes in Sunan Kubra that the great Taba‘ee Hadhrat Suwaid bin Ghaflah (May Allah be well pleased with him) used to lead the people in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh:

أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو الْخَصِيبِ قَالَ : كَانَ يَؤُمُّنَا سُوَيْدُ بْنُ غَفَلَةَ فِى رَمَضَانَ فَيُصَلِّى خَمْسَ تَرْوِيحَاتٍ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً.

Translation: Hadhrat Abul Khusaib (May Allah be well pleased with him) says: Hadhrat Suwaid (May Allah be well pleased with him) used to lead us in prayer and used to lead us in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh with 5 breaks.
(Sunan Kubra Lil Baihaqui, Kitab Us Salaat, Hadith No: 4803)
After relating this Tradition, Imam Baihaqui (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes:
Translation: The chain of narration of this Tradition is rigorously authenticated (Sahih).
Third Tradition
Harith (May Allah be well pleased with him) used to lead the people in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh
عن الحارث أنه كان يؤم الناس في رمضان بالليل بعشرين ركعة ويوتر بثلاث ويقنت قبل الركوع. 
Translation: Hadhrat Harith (May Allah be well pleased with him) used to lead the people in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and 3 Raka’at of Witr and used to recite Dua Qunoot before going into the ruku. 
(Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol 2, Pg No: 285, Bab 227, Hadith No: 6)
Hadhrat Harith (May Allah be well pleased with him) is a student of Hadhrat ‘Ali (May Allah be well pleased with him) whose narrations are present in the 4 books of Sihah Sittah apart from Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

Fourth tradition 
Hadhrat Abul Bakhtari (May Allah be well pleased with him) used to lead the people in 20 rakkats of Taraweeh
عن أبي البختري أنه كان يصلي خمس ترويحات في رمضان ويوتر بثلاث. 
TranslationHadhrat Abul Bakhtari (May Allah be well pleased with him) says that in Ramadhan, he would offer 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh with 5 breaks and 3 Raka’at of Witr.
(Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol 2, Pg No: 285, Bab 227, Hadith No: 7)
Hadhrat Abul Bakhtari (May Allah be well pleased with him) is a great Taba‘ee.  Imam ‘Asqalani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in Lisaan Ul Mizaan that Abu Zara‘a and Ibn Ma‘een have declared him reliable.  (Lisan Ul Mizaan, Vol. 5, Pg. No. 224, Hadith No. 7768)

Fifth Tradition 
20 Raka’at of Taraweeh – Evidence by Hadhrat ‘Ata (May Allah be well pleased with him)
عن عطاء قال أدركت الناس وهم يصلون ثلاثا وعشرين ركعة بالوتر. 
It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Ata (May Allah be well pleased with him), he says: I saw the people offering 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and 3 Raka’at of Witr.
(Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol 2, Pg No: 285, Bab 227, Hadith No: 9, Fathul Bari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, Bab Salat Ut Taraweeh)
Hadhrat ‘Ata bin Ribah is a Taba‘ee.  He is counted among the jurists of the Taba‘een.  He passed away in 114 Hijri.  He had the honor of meeting many Sahabah.  Those people whom Hadhrat ‘Ata found offering 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh are Sahabah and other greats from among the Taba‘een.

Sixth Tradition 
20 Raka’at of Taraweeh – Statement by Ibn Abi Mulaika (May Allah shower His mercy on him)
عن نافع عن عمر قال كان ابن أبي مليكة يصلي بنا في رمضان عشرين ركعة ويقرأ بسورة الملائكة في ركعة. 
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Umar's (May Allah be well pleased with him) freed slave Hadhrat Nafe’ (May Allah be well pleased with him):  Ibn Abi Mulaika used to lead us in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and used to recite Holy Quran worth Surah Fatir in 1 Raka’at.

(Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol 2, Pg No: 285, Bab 227, Hadith No: 4)

Seventh Tradition
20 Raka’at of Taraweeh ‑ Practice of Hadhrat Ali bin Rabee‘a (May Allah shower His mercy on him)
It is given in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba:
عن سعيد بن عبيد أن علي بن ربيعة كان يصلي بهم في رمضان خمس ترويحات ويوتر بثلاث.
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Sa‘eed bin ‘Ubaid (May Allah be well pleased with him): In the month of Ramadhan, Hadhrat Ali Bin Rabee’a (May Allah be well pleased with him) used to lead the Muslims in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh with 5 breaks.
(Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol 2, Pg No: 285, Bab 227, Hadith No: 11)
Hadith narrated by Hadhrat ‘Ali Bin Rabee‘a are present in Sihah Sittah.  Muhaddith Ibn Sa‘ad writes in Tabaqaat that Hadhrat ‘Ali bin Rabee‘a is a reliable narrator and a famous Taba‘ee.  He is a student of Hadhrat ‘Ali, Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin ‘Umar and Hadhrat Zaid Bin Arqam (May Allah be well pleased with them).

Imam Dhahabi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in Siyar A‘alaam Un Nubala that Hadhrat ‘Ali Bin Rabee‘a is among the scholars of Islam.  His narrations are on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Ali, Hadhrat Asma, Hadhrat Mugheera and Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin ‘Umar (May Allah be well pleased with them).  Yahya Bin Sa‘eed (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has declared him reliable narrator.

Eight Tradition 
The teacher of Imam Bukhari's (May Allah shower His mercy on him) teachers, the Hadith-Expert Hadhrat Abdul Razzaq (May Allah shower His mercy on him), 2496 of whose narrated Hadith are present in Sihah Sittah, Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal and Sunan Daraqutni, writes in his Musannaf with his own chain of authority:
عبد الرزاق عن الثوري عن إسماعيل بن عبد الملك قال : كان سعيد بن جبير يؤمنا في شهر رمضان ، فكان يقرأ بالقراءتين جميعا ، يقرأ ليلة بقراءة ابن مسعود، فكان يصلي خمس ترويحات- 
Translation: Imam Abdul Razaq (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Sufyan Sauri (May Allah be well pleased with him) and he has narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Ismail bin Abdul Malik that Hadhrat Saeed bin Jubair (May Allah be well pleased with him) used to lead us in Salaat in the month of Ramadhan and used to recite the Quran in 2 different ways, one night according to the method of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas’ud(May Allah be well pleased with him) and would lead us in 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh with 5 breaks.
(Musannaf Abdur Razzaq, Hadith No: 7749)
Hadhrat Sa’eed Bin Jubair (May Allah be well pleased with him) who is among the jurists from among the Taba‘een.  His narrations are present in Sihah Sittah.  Imam Suyuti has written in Tabaqat Ul Huffaz:
Translation: When the people of Kufa came to Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin ‘Abbas (May Allah be well pleased with them) to ask a question about Islamic rules, he would say:  Is Sa‘eed Bin Jubair not there among you?  Hadhrat ‘Amr Bin Maimoon narrates on the authority of his father:  Indeed!  Sa‘eed Bin Jubair has passed away and there is none on earth who does not have a need from his knowledge.  (Tabaqaat Ul Huffaz, Al Tabaqat Uth Thalitha)
Imam Badruddin ‘Aini (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes some names of the Taba‘een as an example, who held Taraweeh to be 20 Raka’at.
Translation: Now those Taba‘een who acknowledged Taraweeh to be 20 Raka’at.  Their names are as follows:  Hadhrat Shaitar Bin Shakal, Hadhrat Ibn Abi Mulaika, Hadhrat Harith Hamdani, Hadhrat ‘Ata Bin Abi Ribah, Hadhrat Abul Bakhtari, Hadhrat Hasan Basri’s brother Hadhrat Sa‘eed Bin Abul Hasan, Hadhrat Abdur Rahman Bin Abu  Bkr, Hadhrat ‘Imran ‘Abdi, may Allah shower His mercy on all of them.
In the previous lines, the Traditions of the Taba‘een have been related.  They offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and that they saw others offering 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh, who were naturally Sahabah and other Taba‘een.
Taba‘een are those pious elders who learnt directly from the Sahabah, took the knowledge of Islam from them, saw their customs and practices with their own eyes and acted upon Islam as per what they saw.  For anybody who wants to accept truth, the examples of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam), the Sahabah and the Taba‘een are enough.



20 Raka’at Taraweeh – Practice of the majority of the Hanafi, Shafa‘ee and Hambali scholars


First proof
The Sahabah were all in agreement about 20 Raka’at Taraweeh.  The Taba‘een, majority of the scholars, from Kufa, Shafa‘ee scholars and the majority of the jurists all practiced this.  Allama Badruddin ‘Aini (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in ‘Umdatul Qari:
Translation: Allama Ibn Abdul Barr (May Allah shower His mercy on him) said:  20 Raka’at is the opinion of all scholars.  All the people of Kufa hold this opinion.  Hadhrat Imam Shafa’ee (May Allah shower His mercy on him) and majority of Fuqaha did this only and this is correct.  (‘Umdatul Qari, Kitab Ut Taraweeh)

Second proof
Allama Badruddin ‘Aini (May Allah shower His mercy on him) who authored Umdatul Qari, a commentary and explanation on Sahih Bukhari writes:
واحتج أصحابنا والشافعية والحنابلة بما رواه البيهقي بإسناد صحيح عن السائب بن يزيد الصحابي قال كانوا يقومون على عهد عمر رضي الله تعالى عنه بعشرين ركعة وعلى عهد عثمان وعلي رضي الله تعالى عنهما مثله-
Translation: The Hanafi, Shafa‘ee and the Hambali Imams have accepted (for 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh) that Hadith as evidence which was recorded and narrated by Imam Baihaqui with his own rigorously authenticated (Sahih) chain of narration, which he narrates on the authority of Hadhrat Saib bin Yazid (May Allah be well pleased with him).
The Sahabi narrates that the Sahabah and the Tabie’en offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh in the time of Hadhrat Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him), Hadhrat Uthman (May Allah be well pleased with him), Hadhrat Ali (May Allah be well pleased with him).
(Umdatul Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, Vol 5, Kitab Ul Adhaan, Pg No: 459)
Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafa‘ee, Imam Ahmed bin Hambal and according to 1 report Imam Malik (May Allah be well pleased with al of them) agree that Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at only.


Third proof
Allama Ibn Nujaim (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in Bahr Ur Raiq and:
Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at.  The majority of the scholars agree on this and in east and west (i.e. everywhere), the Muslims practice this.  (Al Bahr Ur Raiq, Vol 2, Pg No: 117)

وَعَلَيْهِ عَمِلَ النَّاسُ شَرْقًا وَغَرْبًا-


Fourth proof
Allama Ibn Rushd Maliki (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in Bidayatul Mujtahid:
(فاختار مالك في احدي قوليه وابو حنيفةوالشافعي واحمد وداؤد القيام بعشرين ركعة سوي الوتر . 
Translation:  According to a report Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafa’ee and Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (May Allah be well pleased with him) have agreed that Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at apart from Witr.
(Bidayatul Mujtahid, Vol 1, Pg No: 210)

Fifth proof
The opinion of Hadhrat Ghouse Azam (May Allah be well pleased with him) 
The pole of the world, the leader of men, Hadhrat Syed Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Hasani Husaini, Ghouse Azam Dastagir (May Allah be well pleased with him) writes in Al Ghunya Li Talibi tariqil haqqi:
وهي عِشْرُونَ رَكْعَة-
Translation: Salaat Ut Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at
(Al Ghunya Li Talibi Tariqil Haqq, Vol 2, Pg No: 16)


20 Raka’at Taraweeh – Opinon of the Imams of the Ummah
Allama Shalbi writes in the Hashiya, explanatory notes, of Tabyeen Ul Haqaaiq Vol 1 pg no.  443:
(  وَهِيَ عِشْرُونَ رَكْعَةً ) أَيْ عِنْدَنَا وَبِهِ قَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ وَأَحْمَدُ وَنَقَلَهُ الْقَاضِي عِيَاضٌ عَنْ جُمْهُورِ الْفُقَهَاءِ .
 Translation: In our (Hanafi scholars) opinion, Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at and this is the ruling of Imam Shafa'ee and of Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (May Allah be well pleased with him).  Allama Qazi IAyaz has narrated on the authority of the majority of scholars that Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at. 
Allama Ibn Abidin Shaami Hanafi Naqshbandi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in Raddul Muhtar:
( قَوْلُهُ وَهِيَ عِشْرُونَ رَكْعَةً ) هُوَ قَوْلُ الْجُمْهُورِ وَعَلَيْهِ عَمَلُ النَّاسِ شَرْقًا وَغَرْبًا .

Translation: Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at.  This is the ruling of the majority of scholars.
(Radd Ul Muhtaar, Vol 1, Pg No: 521) 
It is written in Mausua’a Fiqhiya:
فَذَهَبَ جُمْهُورُ الْفُقَهَاءِ مِنَ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ ، وَالشَّافِعِيَّةِ ، وَالْحَنَابِلَةِ ، وَبَعْضِ الْمَالِكِيَّةِ  إِلَى أَنَّ التَّرَاوِيحَ عِشْرُونَ رَكْعَةً - 
Translation: The majority of the scholars of the Hanafi, Shafa’ee, Hambali and some Maliki scholars are that Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at.
Allama Ali Sunahwari writes:
وَقَال عَلِيٌّ السَّنْهُورِيُّ : هُوَ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ عَمَل النَّاسِ وَاسْتَمَرَّ إِلَى زَمَانِنَا فِي سَائِرِ الأَْمْصَارِ -

Translation: The people practice this and all the cities have been following this only.
(Al Mausu’atul Fiqhiya Al Kuwaitiya, Vol 27, Pg No: 141/142)
Imam Tirmidhi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes about the opinion of the majority of the scholars on 20 Raka’at Taraweeh:
Translation: On the basis of the Hadith of Hadhrat ‘Umar, Hadhrat ‘Ali and other Sahabah (May Allah be well pleased with them), majority of scholars have judged that in Taraweeh, there are 20 Raka’at.  This is the position of Hadhrat Sufyan Thauri, Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin Mubarak and Imam Shafa‘ee (May Allah be well pleased with them).  (Jame' Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 806)

The practice of the people of Makkah
Imam Tirmidhi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has related the opinion of Imam Shaf‘ee in Jame' Tirmidhi:
Translation: Imam Shafa‘ee (May Allah shower His mercy on him) said:  In the same way, I have found people of my city, Makkah, offering 20 Raka’at.  (Jame' Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 806)
The interpreter of Sahih Bukhari, Hadhrat Imam Ibn Battal (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes after relating the Hadith of Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin ‘Abbas (May Allah be well pleased with them):
Translation:  In the same way, the Hadith of 20 Raka’at Taraweeh is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Umar, Hadhrat ‘Ali and Hadhrat Ubai Bin Ka‘ab.  The scholars of Kufa and Imam Shafa‘ee also hold this position that Tarawee is 20 Raka’at.  (Sharh Sahih Bukhari Li Ibn Battaal, Hadith No. 7766)



Taraweeh is 20 Raka’at – Opinion of Hanafi scholars

Taraweeh is 20 Raka’at – Opinion of Hanafi scholars
First proof
Hadhrat Imam Sarkhsi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in Mabsut:
فَإِنَّهَا عِشْرُونَ رَكْعَةً سِوَى الْوِتْرِ عِنْدِنَا-

Translation: In our opinion, Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at without Witr.
(Mabsut, Sarkhisi, Kitab Us Salaat, Al Faslil Awwali Fi ‘Adadi Raka’at)

Second proof
Imam Kasani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes:
وَأَمَّا قَدْرُهَا فَعِشْرُونَ رَكْعَةً فِي عَشْرِ تَسْلِيمَاتٍ ، فِي خَمْسِ تَرْوِيحَاتٍ كُلُّ تَسْلِيمَتَيْنِ تَرْوِيحَةٌ وَهَذَا قَوْلُ عَامَّةِ الْعُلَمَاءِ . 
Translation: Taraweeh is 20 Raka’at, offered with 10 salaams and 5 breaks.  After every 2 salaams, a break is to be taken.  This is the ruling of the majority.
(Bada‘i Us Sana‘i, Vol 1, Pg No: 644)

Third proof
Imam Abdullah bin Ahmed Nasafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him), the author of Tafseer Midraak writes:
وسن في رمضان عشرون ركعة-
Translation: In the month of Ramadhan, 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh is Sunnah.
(Kanz Ud Daqaaiq, Kitab Us Salaat, Pg No: 34)

Fourth proof 
Imam Zaila‘i Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes:
( قَوْلُهُ وَهِيَ عِشْرُونَ رَكْعَةً ) أَيْ عِنْدَنَا وَبِهِ قَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ وَأَحْمَدُ وَنَقَلَهُ الْقَاضِي عِيَاضٌ عَنْ جُمْهُورِ الْعُلَمَاءِ .
Translation: In our opinion, Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at and Imam Shafa’ee and Imam Ahmed bin Hambal have also said this.  Allama Qazi Ayaz (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has narrated the same on the authority of the majority of the scholars.
(Tabyeen Ul Haqaiq, Kitab Us Salaat, Bab Witr wan Nawafil)

Fifth proof 
Allama Ibn Nujaim Misri (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in Bahr Ur Raaiq:

وَقَوْلُهُ عِشْرُونَ رَكْعَةً بَيَانٌ لِكَمِّيَّتِهَا وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الْجُمْهُورِ لِمَا فِي الْمُوَطَّإِ عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ رُومَانَ قَالَ كَانَ النَّاسُ يَقُومُونَ فِي زَمَنِ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ بِثَلَاثٍ وَعِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً وَعَلَيْهِ عَمِلَ النَّاسُ شَرْقًا وَغَرْبًا -
Translation: The majority of the Fuqaha say that Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at, as the Hadith of Hadhrat Yazid bin Ruman (May Allah be well pleased with him) is present in Mawatta Al Malik that in the era of Hadhrat Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) people used to offer 23 Raka’at (20 Raka’at Taraweeh and 3 Raka’at of Witr)
The Muslims of the east and west have been doing the same.
(Al Bahr Ur Raiq, Vol 2, Pg No: 117)

It is given in Fatawa A’alamgiri:
وَهِيَ خَمْسُ تَرْوِيحَاتٍ كُلُّ تَرْوِيحَةٍ أَرْبَعُ رَكَعَاتٍ بِتَسْلِيمَتَيْنِ .
كَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِيَّةِ وَلَوْ زَادَ عَلَى خَمْسِ تَرْوِيحَاتٍ بِالْجَمَاعَةِ يُكْرَهُ عِنْدَنَا .
هَكَذَا فِي الْخُلَاصَةِ .

Translation: Taraweeh is offered with 5 breaks.  Each break is of 4 Raka’at, which is offered with 2 salaams.  If it is offered with more than 5 breaks, it is Makruh (Undesirable) in our opinion.
(Fatawa A‘alamgiri, Kitab Us Salaat, Pg No: 115)

Sixth proof
Allama Abdur Rahman Muhammad, popularly known as Shaykh Zada Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes:
(عشرون ركعة) سوي الوتر -
Translation: Apart from Witr, Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at.  (Majma ‘Ul ANhur, Kitab Us Salaat, Fasl Fit Taraweeh)
Clarification by Hadhrat Shah Waliullah Muhaddis Dehlvi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 
Hadhrat Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlvi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes about Taraweeh in his monumental work Hujjatullahil Baligha:
وعدده عشرون ركعة- 
Translation: Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at.
(Hujjatullahil Baligha, Vol 2, Pg No: 18)
(Zujajatul Masabeeh, Haashiya, Vol 1, Pg No: 366)


Seventh proof
 
‘Allama Haskafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in Durre Mukhtar, Vol 1, Pg No: 521:
(وهي عشرون ركعة) (بعشر تسليمات)

Eight proof
Clarification by Allama Ibn e Abidin Shaami 
Allama Ibn Abidin Shaami Hanafi Naqshbandi writes:
وَلَا يَخْفَى أَنَّ الرَّوَاتِبَ وَإِنْ كَمُلَتْ أَيْضًا إلَّا أَنَّ هَذَا الشَّهْرَ لِمَزِيدِ كَمَالِهِ زِيدَ فِيهِ هَذَا الْمُكَمِّلُ فَتَكْمُلُ .
Translation: It is not a secret that the Sunnah along with the Fardh does complete them, but this is the month of absolute perfection.  That’s why a Sunnah which makes it all the more perfect has been added.  (Durre Mukhtaar, Vol. 1, Pg. No. 521)




20 Raka’at Taraweeh in Maliki school of Fiqh
Allama Ibn Rushd Maliki (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in Bidayatul Mujtahid:
(فاختار مالك في احدي قوليه وابو حنيفةوالشافعي واحمد وداؤد القيام بعشرين ركعة سوي الوتر .

Translation:  According to a report Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafa’ee and Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (May Allah be well pleased with him) have agreed that Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at apart from Witr.
(Bidayatul Mujtahid, Vol 1, Pg No: 210)


20 Raka’at of Taraweeh in the Hambali school of Fiqh

Allama Ibn Qudama Hambali (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in his book Al Kafi:
فالسنة أن يصلي بهم عشرين ركعة في الجماعة لذلك ، ويوتر الإمام بهم بثلاث ركعات - 
Translation: It is a Sunnah that Taraweeh should be offered as congregational prayer of 20 Raka’at and the Imam should lead the people in Witr also.
(Al Kafi, Kitab Us Salaat)


36 Raka’at – A distinction of the people of Madina
وَقَال الشَّافِعِيَّةُ : وَلأَِهْل الْمَدِينَةِ فِعْلُهَا سِتًّا وَثَلاَثِينَ ؛ لأَِنَّ الْعِشْرِينَ خَمْسُ تَرْوِيحَاتٍ ، وَكَانَ أَهْل مَكَّةَ يَطُوفُونَ بَيْنَ كُل تَرْوِيحَتَيْنِ سَبْعَةَ أَشْوَاطٍ ، فَحَمَل أَهْل الْمَدِينَةِ بَدَل كُل أُسْبُوعٍ تَرْوِيحَةً لِيُسَاوُوهُمْ ، قَال الشَّيْخَانِ : وَلاَ يَجُوزُ ذَلِكَ لِغَيْرِهِمْ .  .  وَهُوَ الأَْصَحُّ كَمَا قَال الرَّمْلِيُّ لأَِنَّ لأَِهْل الْمَدِينَةِ شَرَفًا بِهِجْرَتِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَمَدْفِنِه- 
Translation: The Shafa‘ee Fuqaha say that the people of Madina offered 36 Raka’at of Taraweeh.  This is because 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh has 5 breaks.  The people of Makka perform 1 round of Tawaaf after each break.  The people of Madina started offering another 4 Raka’at in each break to become equal to the people of Makka in virtuous acts.  This is not allowed for anybody apart from the people of Madina.  This is the most correct ruling as Allama Ramli says: Because the Holy Prophet's (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) migrated to Madina and His sanctuary also is in Madina, the people of Madina are distinguished from others.
(Al Maus‘ooatul Fiqhiya Al Kuwaitiya, Vol 27, Pg No: 143) 
It has been established by the rigorously-authenticated (Sahih) Hadith that Hadhrat ‘Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him), Hadhrat ‘Uthman (May Allah be well pleased with him), Hadhrat ‘Ali (May Allah be well pleased with him) used to offer 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and in the eras of their caliphate, it was also the custom of the Muslim Ummah.  More than that, the Sahabah had arrived at a consensus about this as understood by the explanations given by the Imams, Fuqaha, etc.  In general, in the Muslim world including in Makka and Madina, this is what is followed.


20 Raka’at of Taraweeh ‑ From the time of Hadhrat Muhammad Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) to the time of the Muhaddith-e-Deccan Hadhrat Syed Abdullah 
The above mentioned Hadith, sayings of the Sahabah, sayings of the Imams and the clarifications of the Jurisprudents (Fuqaha-Islamic Law experts) and the Hadith-Experts (Muhaddithin) and other elders of the Ummah make it crystal clear that Taraweeh is of 20 Raka’at only.  The names of the above mentioned Fuqaha and the Muhaddithin mentioned in the book are being mentioned here in chronological order, so, that it becomes all them more clear that in every age and era Taraweeh has been offered as 20 Raka’at only and it was never discontinued.
Hadhrat ‘Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) 23 Hijri
Hadhrat ‘Uthman (May Allah be well pleased with him) 35 Hijri
Hadhrat ‘Ali (May Allah be well pleased with him) 40 Hijri
Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin Mas‘ud (May Allah be well pleased with him) 32 Hijri
Hadhrat Ubai Bin Ka‘ab (May Allah be well pleased with him) 30 Hijri
Hadhrat Tameem Dari (May Allah be well pleased with him) 40 Hijri
Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin ‘Abbas (May Allah be well pleased with them) 68 Hijri
Hadhrat Saib Bin Yazid (May Allah be well pleased with him) 80 Hijri
Hadhrat Shaitar Bin Shakal Kufi (May Allah be well pleased with him) 69 Hijri
Hadhrat Harith Bin ‘Abdullah Hamdani (May Allah be well pleased with him) 65 Hijri
Hadhrat Abu ‘Abdur Rahman ‘Abdullah Bin Habeeb Kufi (May Allah be well pleased with him) 74 Hijri
Hadhrat Suwaid Bin Ghafla (May Allah be well pleased with him) 81 Hijri
Hadhrat Zaid bin Wahb (May Allah be well pleased with him) 83 Hijri
Hadhrat Abul Bakhtari (May Allah be well pleased with him) 83 Hijri
Hadhrat Sa‘eed Bin Jubair (May Allah be well pleased with him) 95 Hijri
Hadhrat Hasan Basri (May Allah be well pleased with him) 110 Hijri
Hadhrat ‘Ata Bin Ribah (May Allah be well pleased with him) 114 Hijri
Hadhrat Ibn Abi Mulaika (May Allah be well pleased with him) 117 Hijri
Hadhrat Yazid Bin Rooman (May Allah be well pleased with him) 130 Hijri
Hadhrat ‘Abdul Bin ‘Aziz (May Allah be well pleasedwith him
Hadhrat Abu Sa‘eed Yahya Bin Sa‘eed Ansari (May Allah be well pleased with him) 143 Hijri
Hadhrat Imam A‘amash (May Allah be well pleased with him) 148 Hijr 
Hadhrat Imam Azam Abu Hanifa (May Allah be well pleased with him) 150 Hijri
Hadhrat Sufyan Thauri (May Allah be well pleased with him) 159 Hijri
Hadhrat Imam Malik Bin Anas (May Allah be well pleased with him) 179 Hijri
Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin Mubarak (May Allah be well pleased with him) 181 Hijri
Imam Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Idrees Shafa‘ee (May Allah be well pleased with him) 204 Hijri 
Imam Abdur Razzaq San‘ani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 211 Hijri 
Imam Abu Bakr Bin Abi Shayba (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 235 Hijri 
Imam Ahmed Bin Hambal (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 241 Hijri
Imam Abu Muhammad Abdul Hameed Bin Humaid (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 249 Hijri
Imam Abu ‘Isa Muhammad Bin ‘Isa Tirmidhi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 279 Hijri
Imam Muhammad Bin Nasr Marwazi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 294 Hijri
Imam Ja‘afar Bin Muhammad Faryabi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 301 Hijri 
Imam Ahmed Bin Sh‘uaib Nasai (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 303 Hijri 
Imam Suleman Bin Ahmed Tabarani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 360 Hijri
Imam Abul Hasan ‘Ali Khalaf Ibn Battaal 449 Hijri
Imam Abu Bakr Ahmed Bin Hussain Baihaqui Shafa‘ee (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 458 Hijri
Allama Ibn Abdul Barr (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 463 Hijri
Allama Abul Waleed Maliki (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 472 Hijri 
Imam Abu Bakr Muhammad Bin Ahmed Sarkhisi Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 483 Hijri 
Imam Qazi Abul Fadhl ‘Iyaz Maliki (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 544 Hijri 
Hadhrat Ghouse Azam Abu Muhammad Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani (May Allah be well pleased with him) 561 Hijri 
Imam Abu Bakr Bin Mas‘ud Kasani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 587 Hijri 
Allama Abu Al Walid Muhammad Bin Ahmed famously known as Ibn Rushd Hafeed Maliki (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 595 Hijri
Allama Mubarak Bin Muhammad Jazari famously known as Ibn Atheer (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 606 Hijri 
Allama Abu Muhammad ‘Abdullah Bin Ahmed Bin Qudama Maqdasi Hambali (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 620 Hijri 
Imam Abu Zakaraiyya Sharfuddin Nawawi Shafa‘ee (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 676 Hijri 
Abul Barakaat Abdullah bin Ahmed Nasafi Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 710 Hijri 
Allama Taqiuddin Ibn Taimiya 728 Hijri 
Imam Abu Muhammad ‘Uthman Bin ‘Ali Zail‘ai Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 743 Hijri 
Allama Hafidh Nooruddin ‘Ali Bin Abu Bakr Haithami (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 807 Hijri 
Allama Hafidh Ahmed Bin ‘Ali Ibn Hajr ‘Asqalani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 852 Hijri 
Allama Badruddin Abu Muhammad Mahmood Bin Ahmed ‘Aini Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 855 Hijri 
Allama Kamaluddin Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahid famously known as Ibn Hamam Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 861 Hijri
Imam Jalaluddin Abdur Rahman Bin Abu Bakr Suyuti (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 911 Hijri

Allama Muhammad Bin Yousuf Salhi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 942 Hijri

Allama Zainuddin Bin Ibrahim famously known as Ibn Nujaim Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 970 Hijri 
Allama Abul ‘Abbas Ahmed Bin Muhammad Ibn Hajr Makki Haithami Shafa‘ee (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 973 Hijri 
Allama Alauddin ‘Ali Muttaqi Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 975 Hijri
Allama Muhammad Bin Sultan Qari Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 1014 Hijri
Allama Abdur Rahman Muhammad famously known as Shaykh Zada Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 1078 Hijri 
Hadhrat Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlvi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 1176 Hijri 
Allama Syed Muhammad Ameen Ibn ‘Abidin Shaami Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) 1252 Hijri
 ‘Allama Doctor Wahba Zuhaili (still living)
The Pride of the Muhaddithin, the essence of the A’arifeen, Hadhrat Abul Hasanaat Syed Abdullah Shah Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Qadri (May Allah shower His Mercy on him) (Deceased-1384 Hijri) has recorded Hadith and Traditions on the authority of Baihaqui, Ibn Abi Shaiba, Baghawi and Abd Bin Humaid in in his great book of Hadith, Zujajatul Masabeeh.
He has mentioned the following Hadith on the authority of Imam Baihaqui:
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Shabrama (May Allah be well pleased with him) who is a student of Hadhrat ‘Ali (May Allah be well pleased with him) that he would lead the people in Taraweeh with 5 breaks.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh as given in the Marfu’ Hadith narrated on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin ‘Abbas (May Allah be well pleased with him), which has been related in the previous pages with references of various books of Hadith.
Those people who believe Taraweeh to be 8 Raka’at declare this Hadith as Dha‘eef (weakly authenticated).  They say that in the chain of narration of this Hadith, there is a narrator Abu Shayba Ibrahim Bin ‘Uthman who is an unreliable narrator.  To answer to this objection, some necessary clarifications are being done here.

Abu Shayba – The opinion of the Muhadditheen
Some Muhadditheen (Hadith experts) have some reservations about Abu Shayba but others have declared him as reliable as well.  Imam Tirmidhi and Imam Ibn Maja have narrated on his authority.  ‘Allama Mizzi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in Tahzeeb Ul Kamal about Abu Shayba:
Translation: Hadhrat Abu Ahmed ‘Adi said:  There are many authoritative Hadith of Abu Shayba.  (Tahzeeb Ul Kamal, Bab Ul Alif)
Hafidh Ibn Hajr ‘Asqalani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in Tahzeeb Ut Tahzeeb:
Translation: Yazid Bin Harun has said that no one more just than Abu Shayba was appointed to judgeship in that time.  (Tahzeeb Ut Tahzeeb, Harf Ul Alif)
These clarifications by the Imams of the Hadith criticism show that Hadhrat Abu Shayba is not unreliable to such an extent that Hadith narrated by him should be summarily rejected.  For this reason, Hadhrat Shah ‘Abdul ‘Azeez Muhaddith Dehlvi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written:
Translation: The grandfather of Muhaddith Abu Bakr, Abu Shayba is not so unreliable that his narrations should be rejected altogether.  (Al Fatawa Al ‘Azeeziya)

The unreliability of the later narrators does not affect Imam Azam Abu Hanifa’s opinion
This research is necessary for those who have deduced from those Hadith in whose chain of narration Abu Shayba is present.  If some Muhadditheen consider Abu Shayba as unreliable, even then the deduction of Imam Azam Abu Hanifa is not affected by this, because Imam Azam (May Allah shower His mercy on him) is among the 5th class of the narrators (Sighar Taba‘een).  He passed away in 150 Hijri whereas Hadhrat Abu Shayba is included in the 7th class who passed away in 169 Hijri.  This shows that Imam Azam (May Allah shower His mercy on him) is the predecessor of Hadhrat Abu Shayba.  It is obvious that the unreliability that seeps in the later ages does not affect the opinion of the earlier masters.
Imam Abdul Wahab Sha’araani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) says:
Translation: If any deduction of Imam Azam’s (May Allah shower His mercy on him) school of thought is considered unreliable, then this unreliability is of the narrators who come into the chain of narration after Imam Azam.  (Meezan Ush Shariah)

A Dha‘eef Hadith becomes “Hasan Lighairhi” because of multiple chains of narration
None one from among the Imams of Hadith criticism have declared this Hadith to be false or fabricated.  On the other hand, these Imams have clarified that when there are other Hadith supporting a Dha‘eef Hadith, then this Hadith does not remain Dha‘eef anymore, but becomes Hasan Lighairihi, which is worthy of being acted upon.
Hadhrat Mulla ‘Ali Qari (May Allah shower His mercy on him) says:

Translation:  Multiple chains of narration make a Dha ‘eef Hadith Hasan.  (Mirqaatul Mafateeh, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 42)
Allama Zainuddin Muhammad Abdur Raoof (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes:
Translation: If all these Hadith are considered to be Dha‘eef then because of the multiplicity of the chains of narration, a Dha‘eef Hadith becomes strong and reliable.  Only a person who is unaware of the science of Hadith or is prejudiced can deny this.  (Faiz Ul Qadeer)
Hadhrat Shah ‘Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlvi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes:
Translation: If there are multiple chains of narration of a Dha‘eef for a Hadith, which compensate for its unreliability, then that Hadith will be known as Hasan Lighairihi.  (Muqaddima Fi Usool Il Hadith Lish Shaykh ‘Abdul Haq Dehlvi)

The Ummah’s acceptance of a Hadith is a sign of the Hadith’s authenticity
In every era, Muslims have been offering 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.  The Ummah has accepted this and the Imams of Hadith have written that because of Talaqqi Bil Qubool, the Hadith is strengthened.  Allama Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Jamaluddin (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in An Nukta ‘Ala Muqaddima Ibn Salah:
Translation: A Hadith which the Ummah has accepted is sure to rigorously authenticated (Sahih).  (Tambeeh, An Nukta ‘Ala Muqaddima Ibn Salah)
‘Allama Ibn Salah has written at another place in the same book:
Translation:  When a Dha‘eef Hadith is accepted by the Ummah, then it will be acted upon as is the authoritative opinion.

Imam Suyuti (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in Tadreeb Ur Rawi:
Translation:  When people accept a Hadith, then it will be judged to be rigorously authenticated (Sahih) even though its chain of narration may not be rigorously authenticated.  (Tadreeb ur Rawi Lis Suyuti Al Awwal Us Sahih)
When the Ummah all over the world has accepted 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh and has been acting upon it then in spite of the chain of narration being not rigorously authenticated it will be accepted as per the clarifications of the Imams of the Ummah and the Muhadditheen.
Thus after reaching the status of Talaqqi Bil Qubool, talking about its reliability or unreliability and investigation about its narrators is entirely unnecessary.  For this reason, the unreliability of Abu Shayba (May Allah be well pleased with him) will not affect the deduction from this Hadith.
Imam Shamsuddin Sakhawi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in “Fathul Mughees Sharahul Alfiyatil Hadith”:
Translation: When the Ummah accepts a Dha‘eef Hadith, then as per the authoritative opinion, it will be acted upon, so much that it is of the status of a Mutawatir (frequently occurring) Hadith, which can abrogate the Nas Qata‘ee (the canonical proofs)

The deduction of a Mujtahid is a proof of the authenticity of the Hadith
The 4 Imams have deduced from the previously mentioned Hadith.  If a Mujtahid (Jurist) performs a deduction based on the Hadith, then this is a sign of the Hadith’s authenticity and reliability.  ‘Allama Ibn Nujaim Misri (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in Al Bahr Ur Raiq Kanz Ud Daqaaiq:

Translation: When a Mujtahid performs a deduction from a Hadith, then this deduction is a sign that this Hadith is rigorously authenticated (Sahih).  Therefore, after a deduction of a Mujtahid, no other proof is needed for the reliability of a Hadith.

The Traditions of the Sahabah support this
That the Sahabah offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh is proof enough that some order or custom of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) was their guide here.  ‘Allama Ibn Nujaim Misri (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written:
Translation: When Imam Abu Yousuf (May Allah shower His mercy on him) asked Imam Azam (May Allah shower His mercy on him) about Taraweeh, he said:  Taraweeh is a Sunnah Moukkada (compulsory Sunnah).  Hadhrat ‘Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) did not do so on his own and neither is he one to invent a new custom.  He gave this order because of some proof that he had with him or because of the order of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).
The Sahabah would be waiting for the command of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) that they could perform it.  They would gaze at every action of His to act upon it and take it to their hearts.  Can we even think about them that they disobeyed the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)?  When they offered 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh, certainly they must have had some unassailable proof, which is in turn a beacon of guidance for us.


Wisdom behind 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh 
The reason as to why there are 20 Raka’at in Taraweeh is that the number of Fardh Raka’at in the daily 5 Salaat, including Witr, adds up to 20.  Taraweeh is a Sunnah and the Sunnah complete the Fardh.  To complete the Fardh Raka’at, the number of Raka’at in Taraweeh has been decreed 20.  As Allama Ibn Nujaim Misri (May Allah shower His mercy upon him) writes on the authority of Allama Halbi:

وَذَكَرَ الْعَلَّامَةُ الْحَلَبِيُّ أَنَّ الْحِكْمَةَ فِي كَوْنِهَا عِشْرِينَ أَنَّ السُّنَنَ شُرِعَتْ مُكَمِّلَاتٍ لِلْوَاجِبَاتِ وَهِيَ عِشْرُونَ بِالْوِتْرِ فَكَانَتْ التَّرَاوِيحُ كَذَلِكَ لِتَقَعَ الْمُسَاوَاةُ بَيْنَ الْمُكَمِّلِ وَالْمُكَمِّلِ انْتَهَى-

Translation: The wisdom behind ordaining the number of Taraweeh Raka’at as 20 that the Sunnah completes the Fardh.  All the Fardh Salaat including Witr add up to 20.  For this reason, Taraweeh is also of the same number, so that the Salaat which are to be completed and the Salaat which complete become equal.
Imam Zaila‘i Hanafi (May Allah shower His mercy on Him) writes:

غَايَةٌ ما قِيلَ الْحِكْمَةُ فِي التَّقْدِيرِ بِعِشْرِينَ وَاَللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ لِيُوَافِقَ الْفَرَائِضَ الِاعْتِقَادِيَّةَ وَالْعَمَلِيَّةَ كَالْوِتْرِ فَإِنَّهَا عِشْرُونَ .

Translation: Only Allah knows the wisdom as to why 20 Raka’at have been ordered for Taraweeh.  It might be that the Raka’at should equal the number of Fardh Salaat, as all the Fardh Salaat including Witr adds up to 20.  (Tabyeen Ul Haqaiaq, Kitab Us Salaat)

20 Raka’at Taraweeh – A Philological argument
“Taraweeh” is an Arabic word.  It is plural of “Tarweeha,” which means “to rest once.”  In Taraweeh, after every 4 Raka’at, a break is taken so that people can rest a bit.  There are a total of 5 breaks.  That is why this Salaat is called “Taraweeh,” plural of “Tarweeha.”  Imam Ibn Manzoor writes in Lisan Ul Arab:
Translation: In Ramadhan, “Tarweeha” is there so that people rest after every 4 Raka’at.  In Hadith, the words “Salaat Ut Taraweeh” have been used because people take a break after 4 Raka’at.  “Taraweeh” is a plural of “Tarweeha” i.e. to rest a bit like to “Tasleema” to say the Salaam once (on ending the Salaat).
In Arabic language, plural is for more than 2.  If Taraweeh is considered to be 8 Raka’at, then its name will not hold true at all.  Even those who consider Taraweeh to be 8 Raka’at call this Salaat, Taraweeh.  8 Raka’at will have only 2 “Tarweeha.”  Thus language and philology also demand that Taraweeh should be more than 8 Raka’at.
Apart from the Hadith, philologically as well, Taraweeh is proven to be 20 Raka’at. 

Meaning and purport of Hadith of 8 Raka’at
There is a narration from Hadhrat Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with her) which mentions 8 raka’at. 
عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا كَيْفَ كَانَتْ صَلَاةُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي رَمَضَانَ فَقَالَتْ مَا كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَزِيدُ فِي رَمَضَانَ وَلَا فِي غَيْرِهِ عَلَى إِحْدَى عَشْرَةَ رَكْعَةً يُصَلِّي أَرْبَعًا فَلَا تَسَلْ عَنْ حُسْنِهِنَّ وَطُولِهِنَّ ثُمَّ يُصَلِّي أَرْبَعًا فَلَا تَسَلْ عَنْ حُسْنِهِنَّ وَطُولِهِنَّ ثُمَّ يُصَلِّي ثَلَاثًا قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَتَنَامُ قَبْلَ أَنْ تُوتِرَ فَقَالَ يَا عَائِشَةُ إِنَّ عَيْنَيَّ تَنَامَانِ وَلَا يَنَامُ قَلْبِي 
Translation:  It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abu Salma bin Abdur Rahman (May Allah be well pleased with him), he says that he asked Hadhrat Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with her) how was the Salaat of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) in Ramadhan?  Ummul Momineen Hadhrat Aisha (May Allah be well pleased with her) said:  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would not offer more than 11 Raka’at in Ramadhan and out of it.  He would 4 Raka’at with such fervor that you should not even talk about it.  Then He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would 3 Raka’at.  I (i.e. Hadhrat Aisha) asked Him: O Prophet of Allah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)!  Do You rest before offering Witr?  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: O Aisha (May Allah be well pleased with her)! Verily my eyes sleep, my heart does not.
(Sahih Bukhari, Kitabul Tahajjud, Pg No: 154, Hadith No: 1147; Bab Fadhl min qiyami Ramadhan, Pg No: 269, Hadith No: 2013; Pg No: 504, Hadith No: 3569; Sahih Muslim Kitab Us Salaatil Musafireen, Hadith No: 738)

8 Raka’at is Taraweeh – An impossible deduction
From this Hadith, an important deduction like 8 Raka’at Taraweeh cannot be performed.  Imam Ibn Hajr ‘Asqalani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in Fath Ul Bari:
Translation: Where the Hadith of 11 Raka’at is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Aisha Siddiqui (May Allah be well pleased with her), Hadith of 7 Raka’at, 9 Raka’at, and 13 Raka’at are also narrated on her authority.  If 3 Raka’at of Witr are subtracted from this number, then they become 4 Raka’at, 6 Raka’at or 10 Raka’at.  Because there are conflicting reports about the same Salaat, some Muhadditheen have ruled this Hadith to be Mudhtarib (Discordant Hadith) and because of this discordance, no deduction can be made from this Hadith.  It is given in Fath Ul Bari:
Translation: ‘Allama Qurtubi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has said:  These Hadith narrated on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Aisha (May Allah be well pleased with her) have put many scholars in confusion, so much so that some scholars have ruled them as Mudhtarib.

The Hadith of 8 Raka’at is about Tahajjud
Saying on the basis of this Hadith that Taraweeh is only of 8 Raka’at is a grave mistake, which is very much against the science of Hadith, the narration of Hadith and the understanding of Hadith.
When looked closely, it becomes obvious that this Hadith is not at all about Taraweeh, but about Tahajjud as Hadhrat Aisha (May Allah be well pleased with her) is talking about 8 Raka’at in Ramadhan and out of it.  Every sane person realizes that Taraweeh is offered only in Ramadhan and not out of it; otherwise, we should also say that Taraweeh is offered for the whole year.  Even those who insist that Taraweeh do not offer it throughout the year!  We can act upon this Hadith only when the 8 Raka’at mentioned here are accepted in Tahajjud.  That  these 8 Raka’at mean Tahajjud is also supported by this Hadith of Hadhrat Aisha (May Allah be well pleased with her), which comes in Sahih Bukhari: 
عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُصَلِّي مِنْ اللَّيْلِ إِحْدَى عَشْرَةَرَكْعَةً فَإِذَا طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ صَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْنِ خَفِيفَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ اضْطَجَعَ عَلَى شِقِّهِ الْأَيْمَنِ حَتَّى يَجِيءَ الْمُؤَذِّنُ فَيُؤْذِنَهُ-

Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Aisha (May Allah be well pleased with her) that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would offer 11 Raka’at, then when the day dawned, He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would offer 2 light Raka’at.  Then, He would rest on His right side to the point that the Muezzin would come and request Him.  (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2, Kitab Ud Da’awat, Hadith No: 6310)

8 Raka’at means Tahajjud only
Also, the (coming) Hadith of Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Abbas (May Allah be well pleased with them) clearly shows that the Hadith of 8 Raka’at is about Tahajjud.  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would rest and offer 11 Raka’at, then Hadhrat Bilal (May Allah be well pleased with him) would come and call out the Adhaan, as given in Sahih Bukhari:
عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ بِتُّ فِي بَيْتِ مَيْمُونَةَ لَيْلَةً وَالنَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عِنْدَهَا لِأَنْظُرَ كَيْفَ صَلَاةُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِاللَّيْلِ فَتَحَدَّثَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَعَ أَهْلِهِ سَاعَةً ثُمَّ رَقَدَ فَلَمَّا كَانَ ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ الْآخِرُ أَوْ بَعْضُهُ قَعَدَ فَنَظَرَ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَقَرَأَ: إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ لِأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ ,ثُمَّ قَامَ فَتَوَضَّأَ وَاسْتَنَّ ثُمَّ صَلَّى إِحْدَى عَشْرَةَ رَكْعَةً ثُمَّ أَذَّنَ بِلَالٌ بِالصَّلَاةِ فَصَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ فَصَلَّى لِلنَّاسِ الصُّبْحَ-
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be well pleased with them), he says that I stayed at the house of my aunt Ummul Momineen Hadhrat Maimoona (May Allah be well pleased with her).  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) talked to His wife for some time, then rested and when the last third part of the night came, He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) sat up and looked towards the sky and recited this verse of the Holy Quran:
Indeed in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are Signs (of Allah’s Absolute Authority) for those who possess constructive wisdom.  Surah Al Imran (3:190)
Then the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) awoke, would perform Wuzu and use Miswak and offered 11 Raka’at.  Then when Hadhrat Bilal (May Allah be well pleased with him) called out the Adhaan, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) offered 2 Raka’at and came out and offered the Salaat of Fajr.  (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2, Kitab Ut Tafseer, Pg No: 657, Hadith No: 4569)
In the Hadith from Sahih Bukhari narrated on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with her), it is clearly mentioned that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) never missed Tahajjud in Ramadhan nor out of it.  As per the words of Allah Ta'ala, “And in some part of the night (as well, waking from sleep,) offer Tahajjud Salaat,” the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would compulsorily offer Tahajjud.  If 8 Raka’at is taken as Taraweeh, then it will lead to the conclusion that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) didn’t offer Tahajjud that night.
Deriving such a meaning from a Hadith that is not reconcilable with other customs and practices of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is not at all correct.  A meaning which leads to a definite collapse of the Holy Prophet’s (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) usual customs and practices is not at all acceptable.
If Taraweeh is taken as 8 raka’at, then it should also be accepted that Taraweeh should be offered after getting up from sleep and in the last part of the night.  Nobody offers Taraweeh after getting up from sleep. 
If Hadhrat Aisha (May Allah be well pleased with her) was saying about 8 Raka’at of Taraweeh, then she herself would be offering the same 8 Raka’at.  She would not have kept quiet on seeing something against the Sunnah.  There is no narration from Hadhrat Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with her) that she offered 8 Raka’at Taraweeh.  She was present in the times of the Four Caliphs.  The Sahabah would all offer 20 Raka’at.  If this was against the Sunnah, she would have objected to it.  That Hadhrat Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with her) held her peace and did not object to this shows that this Hadith is not about Taraweeh.
By holding her peace, she contributed to the consensus of the Sahabah as has been previously mentioned that in the era of the First 4 Caliphs, a consensus has been achieved on 20 Raka’at Taraweeh.  Saying that Taraweeh is of 8 Raka’at is to insinuate that a consensus has not been achieved.  Although the scholars who describe the consensus of Sahabah include stalwarts like Imam Ibn Abdul Barr, Imam Sarkhisi, Imam Kasani, ‘Allama Ibn Qudama Maqdisi Hambali, Shaykh Ibn Taimiya, ‘Allama Zail‘ai, ‘Allama Badruddin ‘Aini and Mulla ‘Ali Qari.

Doubts of non-followers and their clarification
The non-followers (Gair Muqallidin) deny that the Hadith of 8 Raka’at is about Tahajjud and believe that Tahajjud and Taraweeh are the same.  In Ramadhan, apart from Tahajjud, no other Salaat of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is established.
This belief is against the canonic proofs.  No sane person can deny that Taraweeh and Tahajjud are different Salaat.  Many many Hadith attest to this.  The differences between Taraweeh and Tahajjud themselves prove this.  Here we will describe some differences between Taraweeh and Tahajjud:
(1)  Taraweeh is offered in the early portion of the night and Tahajjud is offered in the last portion of the night, as the Hadith narrated on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) in Sahih Bukhari:
Translation:  The Salaat which people sleep over (and miss) is better than the Salaat, which people offer.  By this Hadhrat ‘Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) meant offering Tahajjud in the last portion of the night whereas people offer Taraweeh in the earlier portion of the night.  (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 1, Pg. No. 269, Hadith No. 1906; Sunan Kubra Lil Baihaqui, Hadith No. 4603)
(2)  The fasts of Ramadhan were obligated in 2 Hijri, whereas Tahajjud was being offered it from before this time.  After the fasts were obligated, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:
Translation:  Verily, Allah Ta'ala has decreed fasts to be obligatory for you and I have declared Taraweeh as a Sunnah.  Whoever fasts with Iman with the intention of reward in this month and offer Taraweeh, that person will be free of sins as he (or she) were at the time of birth.  (Sunan Nasai, Hadith No. 2180; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 1318; Kanzul Ummal, Hadith No. 23655, 23722, 24289)
Considering Taraweeh and Tahajjud to be the same Salaat in spite of this is to deny truth itself.
(3)  There is no specific number of Raka’at fixed for Tahajjud.  It has already been mentioned that on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with her), apart from Witr, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Raka’at have been narrated whereas for Taraweeh the number of 20 is specified and fixed.  It is illogical to base something fixed on something unspecified.
(4)  No utterance of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) and/or the Sahabah attests to this belief that Tahajjud and Taraweeh is the same.
(5)  Tahajjud is offered in all months, including Ramadhan, whereas Taraweeh is offered only in Ramadhan.
(6)  From the various Hadith of Tahajjud, it is clear that Tahajjud is offered after awakening from sleep and no Hadith mention sleeping before Taraweeh.
(7)  There is a Hadith in Sahih Muslim:
Translation: Hadhrat ‘Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with him) said:  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would make such efforts (in worship) in the last 10 days of Ramadhan, which He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would not make at any other time.
There is a Hadith in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim:
عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا دَخَلَ الْعَشْرُ شَدَّ مِئْزَرَهُ وَأَحْيَا لَيْلَهُ وَأَيْقَظَ أَهْلَهُ
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Ummul Momineen Hadhrat Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with her) that when the last 10 days of Ramadhan came, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would worship more than before, would spend the nights in worship and would wake up the members of the household (for worship). (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith No: 2044; Sahih Muslim, Hadith No: 1174)
In the Hadith of Tahajjud, Hadhrat ‘Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with her) clarifies that whether in Ramadhan or out of it, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) never offered more than 8 Raka’at.  If Taraweeh and Tahajjud are one and the same, then what do 8 Raka’at of Tahajjud year-round and special efforts in worship mentioned in the aforementioned Hadith mean?  Both these Hadith are narrated on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Aisha (May Allah be well pleased with her).
If in Ramadhan and out of it, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) did not offer more than 8 Raka’at, then what would be special efforts in worship in Ramadhan?  Obviously, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would offer the special Salaat of Taraweeh in Ramadhan.
If Taraweeh is accepted as 20 Raka’at, then reconciliation of Hadith is possible
The Hadith of Ummul Momineen Hadhrat Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with her) mentions 8 Raka’at and in the beginning of the book a Hadith has been mentioned from Sahih Bukhari, which says that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) offered Salaat for 2, 3 days and the Sahabah followed the lead of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) in Salaat.
If the Hadith of 8 Raka’at is about Taraweeh, then which Salaat does the other Hadith talk about?  Both the Hadith cannot be about the same Salaat, as the previous Hadith of Hadhrat Aisha (May Allah be well pleased with her) is about Ramadhan and out of it and the other Hadith talks about 2, 3 days.  In the Hadith of 8 Raka’at, there is mention of during Ramadhan and apart from it.  The other Hadith in which the Sahabah followed the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) in Salaat is about Taraweeh.
In the previous pages, the hollowness of the deduction of Taraweeh from the Hadith of 8 Raka’at has been made clear and the consequences of accepting this have been outlined.  Only when Taraweeh is taken as 20 Raka’at, the intent of the Hadith became clear.
The deduction of the non-followers from the Hadith of 11 Raka’at
Another argument of the non-followers is the following Hadith of Muwatta Al Malik:
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Saib Bin Yazid (May Allah be well pleased with him), he said:  Hadhrat ‘Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) ordered Hadhrat Ubai Bin Ka‘ab and Hadhrat Tameem Dari (May Allah be well pleased with them) to lead people in 11 Raka’at.  He said:  The Imam would recite Surah, which have 100 verses in them so much so that because of the long Raka’at, we would support ourselves with staffs and would return only just before Fajr.  (Muwatta Imam Malik, Pg. No. 78, Hadith No. 4)
On the basis of this Hadith, they say that if 3 Raka’at of Witr are subtracted, Taraweeh becomes 8 Raka’at.  Thus, it is established through this Hadith that Taraweeh is of 8 Raka’at.

Making the deduction of 11 Raka’at is incorrect
Making the deduction of 11 Raka’at from this is incorrect because of a few reasons.  There are some reservations about this Hadith and the reliable Muhadditheen and Fuqaha (Jurists) have not deduced Taraweeh to be 8 Raka’at from this Hadith but have made many clarifications.

(1)  Reconciliation between the Hadith of 11 Raka’at and 20 Raka’at
Imam Baihaqui (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes:
Translation:  Reconciliation between these 2 Hadith is possible in that the Sahabah offered 11 Raka’at in the beginning and later on started offering 20 Raka’at Taraweeh and 3 Witr.  (Sunan Kubra Lil Baihaqui, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 299)
Imam Ibn Hajr ‘Asqalani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written:
Translation: It is possible that these are the acts of 2 different occasions.  (Fath Ul Bari, Bab Fadhli Man Qama Ramadhan)
Similarly, Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in his Fatawa on the authority of Imam Subki (May Allah shower His mercy on him):
Translation: Maybe Sahabah first preferred long Raka’at over a greater number of Raka’at and took Taraweeh to be 11 Raka’at and later on preferred a greater number of Raka’at over long Raka’at and took Taraweeh to be 20 Raka’at and this remained permanent.  Imam Subki’s (May Allah shower His mercy on him) opinion ends here.  (Al Hawi Lil Fatawa Lis Suyuti, Kitab Us Salaat)
The teacher of Shaykh Ul Islam, Imam Muhammad Anwarullah Farooqui (May Allah shower His mercy on him), Hadhrat Abdul Hai Firangimahalli (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written the opinion of the scholars of the Ummah in “At Ta‘aleeq Ul Mumajjad”:
Translation:  The conflict of the Hadith of Imam Malik (May Allah shower His mercy on him), which is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Saib Bin Yazid (May Allah be well pleased with him) that Hadhrat ‘Umar (May Allah be well pleased with him) ordered Hadhrat Ubai Bin Ka‘ab and Hadhrat Tameem Dari (May Allah be well pleased with them) to lead people in 11 Raka’at, will be considered like this only, because Imam Malik and Imam Baihaqui (May Allah shower His mercy on them) have narrated the Hadith in which Hadhrat ‘Umar gathered the Muslims on 23 Raka’at including Witr.  These Hadith will be understood in the manner that in the beginning the Hadith of 11 Raka’at was acted upon and later on, on 20 Raka’at as Imam Ibn Abdul Barr (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written.
Imam Zail‘ai has also mentioned


A compelling analysis
 We ask those who insist Taraweeh is 8 Raka’at, is there any Marfu’ rigorously authenticated Hadith in support of this in which it is clearly mentioned that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) offered 8 Raka’at of Taraweeh and there are no complexities and reservations about that Hadith?
 These people insist that a rigorously authenticated Marfu’ Hadith be presented in support of 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh, which we have done at the beginning of the book.  Now, we ask them some questions.  If possible, then as per their own insistence, they should answer it with a rigorously authenticated Marfu’ Hadith.
 (1)  The congregation for Taraweeh is established from the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) only for 2 or 3 days, as learnt from the Hadith of Sahih Bukhari.  When the non-followers demand a rigorously authenticated Hadith on every issue from Hanafi and followers of other Imams, then the question is which rigorously authenticated, Marfu’ Hadith proves that Taraweeh should be offered with congregation for the whole month of Ramadhan?  Acting on which Hadith do they have congregational Taraweeh each night of Ramadhan?  They should present a rigorously authenticated Hadith of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) for this.
 (2)  These people also finish the recitation of 1 complete Holy Quran in Taraweeh.  Did the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) finish 1 full recitation of the Holy Quran in Taraweeh?  Is this established by a rigorously authenticated Hadith?  Then based on which Hadith do they finish 1 complete recitation of the Holy Quran in Taraweeh?
 (3)  Is there any rigorously authenticated Hadith which says that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) offered congregational Taraweeh every year?  Although the non-followers offer congregational Taraweeh every year in Ramadhan.
 There are no rigorously authenticated Marfu’ Hadith about the above 3 issues.  Then as per their own principles, are not these 3 customs Bida‘ah?
 Having Taraweeh with congregation for the whole of Ramadhan, finishing 1 complete recitation of the Holy Quran and having congregational Taraweeh every year are things which are established only by the Traditions of the Sahabah and have been their custom.  They are not established by the practices of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  They way these people follow the Traditions of the Sahabah in these 3 issues, in the same way what is stopping them from following the Sahabah in the number of Raka’at of Taraweeh?  If the number “20” is Bida‘ah (innovation in religion), then how can the aforementioned 3 issues be Sunnah?  If the above 3 issues are Sunnah, then how is 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh, a Bida‘ah?

Calling 20 Raka’at a Bida’ah is not at all justice

It is not correct to make a deduction from the 8 Raka’at Hadith and call 20 Raka’at a Bida’ah.  Even if it is accepted that Taraweeh is of 8 Raka’at, then the one offering 20
Raka’at is offering 12 Raka’at extra and Ramadhan is the month of good deeds and virtuous acts.  It is established by the Hadith that in this month extra prayers should be offered.  Although we have been generally ordered to hasten towards virtuous deeds and this has been declared to be a special characteristic of the Prophets and those who are close to Allah Ta'ala.  Also, success has been promised on doing so.

Surah Baqarah-148
Surah Mominon 61
Surah Haj 77

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) has given glad tidings of the reward for offering Nafl prayers being equal to the reward of offering Fardh Salaat in other months.  There is a lengthy Hadith in Imam Baihaqui’s Shu’ab Ul Iman.  Please see a small part out of it:
من تقرب فيه بخصلة من الخير كان كمن أدى فريضة فيما سواه-

Translation: The person who does a Nafl good act in this month is like a person doing a Fardh act in other months.  (Baihaqui Shu’ab Ul Iman, Hadith No: 3455, Zujajatul Masabeeh Vol 1, Pg No: 541/542, Kitab Us Saum)
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would offer more worship in this month than other months.  It is given in a Hadith in Sahih Bukhari:
ا دَخَلَ الْعَشْرُ شَدَّ مِئْزَرَهُ وَأَحْيَا لَيْلَهُ وَأَيْقَظَ أَهْلَهُ

Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Ummul Momineen Hadhrat Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah be well pleased with her) that when the last 10 days of Ramadhan came, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would worship more than before, would spend the nights in worship and would wake up the members of the household.  (Sahih Bukhari, Kitabul Fadhli Lailatul Qadr, Hadith No: 2044, Sahih Muslim Hadith No: 1174)
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) has declared Taraweeh as a special Sunnah, as already mentioned in the Hadith from Sunan Nasai, Sunan Ibn Majah and Kanzul Ummal.
In this Hadith, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) has declared extra Salaat in Ramadhan as His Sunnah and encouraged the Ummah to perform more good deeds than other months.
If Taraweeh is accepted as 8 Raka’at, then it should be said that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) encouraged the Ummah to offer more good deeds and perform more worship, but He Himself did not do so.  May Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) protect us from this. 
The mentioned Hadith establish that in Ramadhan more and more worship should be offered.  Even then calling 20 Raka’at as a Bida’ah is no justice. 
It is a matter of shame that that act which is completely against the Sunnah is termed Sunnah and what the Hadith really demand is called Bida’ah.

The non-followers acting upon Dha‘eef Hadith
The non-followers claim to act only upon rigorously authenticated (Sahih) Hadith and if there is even a slight degree of unreliability in a Hadith, they don’t accept it and demand a Sahih Hadith.  However, they also act upon Dha‘eef Hadith.  We are presenting some examples here, which will show the truth about their claim of acting “only” on Sahih Hadith.

(1)  Hadith about having 2 witnesses for Nikah is Dha‘eef
The Hadith from which the non-followers deduce the necessity of having 2 witnesses for Nikah is not rigorously authenticated with respect to its chain of narration, but is weakly authenticated (Dha‘eef).  The necessity of having 2 witnesses is deduced from the following Hadith:
Translation:  Nikah is valid only with the permission of the guardian (Wali) in the presence of 2 witnesses.
Imam Daraqutni has mentioned this Hadith in his Sunan.  In the chain of narration of Imam Daraqutni, there is ‘Abdullah Bin Muhriz about whom Imam Ibn Hajr ‘Asqalani has written:
Translation: ‘Abdullah Bin Muhriz is a very unreliable narrator.
A very famous and authoritative scholar of the non-followers Siddiq Bin Hasan Qunuji writes in Ar Rauzatun Nadiyya after mentioning this Hadith:
Translation: In the chain of narration of this Hadith, there is ‘Abdullah Bin Muhriz who is a Forsaken narrator (Matruk Rawi, from whom narration of Hadith has been abandoned)  (Ar Rauzatun Nadiyya, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 22)
In another chain of narration of this Hadith, there is ‘Adi Bin Fadhl about whom Imam Baihaqui (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes:
Translation: ‘Adi Bin Fadhl has narrated this although he is unreliable.  With a rigorously authenticated chain of narration, this is a Mauquf Hadith.  (Sunan Kubra Lil Baihaqui, Vol. 7, Pg. No. 202, Hadith No. 13494)
Imam Ibn Hajr ‘Asqalani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in Talkhees Ul Habeer about the same narrator:
Translation: ‘Adi Bin Fadhl is an unreliable narrator.
‘Allama Haithami (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes after mentioning 2 Hadith of the same meaning from Imam Tabarani’s M‘ojam Ausat:
Translation: In the chains of narration of both these Hadith, Rab‘ee Bin Badr is there who is a forsaken narrator.
Also Imam Ibn Hajr ‘Asqalani (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has declared Rab‘ee Bin Badr as forsaken narrator.
‘Allama Abu Ja‘afar ‘Aqeeli (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has written in his book “Dhu‘afaa” about Rab‘ee Bin Badr:

Translation: Imam Qutaiba has declared him unreliable.
‘Allama Haithami (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes after mentioning another Hadith of M‘ojam Tabarani:
Translation: In this chain of narration, Suleman Bin Arqam is there who is a forsaken narrator.
Imam Nasai has included Suleman bin Arqam in unreliable narrators.
Imam Dhahabi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has mentioned the opinion of the experts of Hadith criticism about Suleman Bin Arqam in Meezan Ul ‘Itidaal:
Translation: The Muhadditheen have stopped narrating from him
Translation: Imam Ahmed says:  We don’t narrate on his authority.  Imam ‘Abbas and Imam ‘Uthman have narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Yahya Bin Ma‘een that he is unreliable.  ‘Allama Jauzjani said:  Suleman Bin Arqam is Saqit Ul ‘Itibaar (totally unreliable).  Imam Abu Dawood and Imam Daraqutni have said that he is a forsaken narrator.
In spite of so many objections and reservations on this Hadith, the non-followers deduce from it.  The question is if the Marfu’ Hadith of 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh is Dha‘eef and thus unacceptable, then how does the Hadith of 2 witnesses for Nikah become acceptable to them in spite of being Dha‘eef?
(2)  The Hadith of a year having to pass before giving Zakaat on wealth is not rigorously authenticated
Among the conditions for the Zakaat to become Wajib is that a year should pass on the wealth.  This condition is compulsory for the non-followers as well.  The Hadith used to prove this is weakly authenticated.  Imam Baihaqui has written:
Translation:  Zakaat does not become Wajib on any wealth until a year has passed on it…………….In the chain of narration of this Hadith, there is Haritha, on whose narrations deductions cannot be based.  In this issue, the Traditions narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddiq, Hadhrat ‘Uthman, Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin ‘Umar and other Sahabah are considered.  (Sunan Kubra Lil Baihaqui, Vol. 4, Pg. No. 160, Hadith No. 7274)
Another Hadith of the same meaning has come from A’asim Bin Dhamra and Imam Baihaqui writes about him:
Translation: A’asim Bin Dhamra (i.e. his narrations) are not worthy of being deduced from.

He also said:
Translation: Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Bin Mubarak (May Allah shower His mercy on him) has declared him unreliable.
Another Hadith in this context is narrated on the authority of Harith Bin ‘Abdullah.  Imam Baihaqui (May Allah shower His mercy on him) clarifies about this:
Translation: Harith A’awar is unreliable.
It has been mentioned on the authority of Imam Sha’abi:
Translation: Imam Sha’abi has said that Harith is a liar.
‘Allama Haithami writes after mentioned a similar Hadith in M‘ojam Tabarani:
Translation: In the chain of narration of this Hadith, there is ‘Ambasa Bin Abdur Rahman who is an unreliable narrator.
Thus, the Marfu’ Hadith of 1 year having to pass for the Zakaat to become Wajib is not free of unreliability, but still the non-followers base their deductions on it.

(3)  All Hadith about the minimum measure of gold for Zakaat are weakly authenticated
The Hadith mention 20 Mithqaal as the minimum amount of gold on which Zakaat becomes Wajib.  Even the non-followers accept this, as given in Maqalat Wa Fatawa Abdul Aziz Bin Baz, Pg. No. 257 although there is no Sahih Hadith about this.  Imam Nawawi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes:
Translation:  In the Sahih Hadith, there is no clarification of the minimum amount of gold.  There are Hadith about this which give it as 2o Mithqaal.  However, they are all unreliable.  However, reliable Fuqaha have accepted it.  (Sharh Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, Pg. No. 316)
For this, there is no Marfu’ Hadith with a rigorously authenticated chain of narration.  In spite of it, the non-followers declare the minimum amount of gold to be 20 Mithqaal.  Is this not acting upon a Dha‘eef Hadith?
These 3 issues have been presented as an example to show that in spite of a Sahih Marfu’i Hadith not being there for them, the non-followers still act upon these Hadith.
(1)  The Marfu’ Hadith about 2 witnesses for Nikah is narrated with a weakly authenticated chain of narration.  There is no Hadith with a rigorously authenticated chain of narration.  So, in this issue, is deduction based on the Traditions of the Sahabah enough?  When the Traditions can become a proof for this issue, then why cannot the rigorously authenticated Traditions of the Sahabah become a proof apart from the Marfu’ Hadith for 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh?
(2)  The Muhadditheen have clarified that there is no Sahih Marfu’ Hadith about 1 year having to pass on the wealth for Zakaat to become compulsory on it.  The narrations from the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) have weakly authenticated chains of narrations.  However, there are Traditions of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddiq and other Sahabah, because of which this issue becomes authoritative.  Our question still remains.  When the Hadith about this are weakly authenticated, then how is the deduction performed on the basis of a Dha‘eef Hadith?  If deduction from the Traditions of the Sahabah in support of a Dha‘eef Hadith is correct, then even if we consider the Marfu’ Hadith of Taraweeh to be Dha‘eef, why aren’t the Traditions of the Sahabah about it acceptable?
(3)  That the minimum amount of gold on which Zakaat becomes Wajib is 20 Mithqaal is not mentioned in any Sahih Hadith.  As per the clarification of Imam Nawawi, all the Hadith which say this are Dha‘eef.  However, the Fuqaha have a consensus about it.  Their consensus strengthens this Hadith.
Although Sahih and Marfu’ Hadith about these issues are not there, the non-followers have accepted these.  In their books, these issues are written in this manner only.  They issue Fatwas on this only.
This shows that they accept the Traditions of the Sahabah although they don’t acknowledge it.  The consensus of the Fuqaha has weight with them as a proof though they don’t admit it.  If it is not so, then what proof do they have to follow the aforementioned rules?  As per their principles, what is the justification for doing so.\?
Can they present a clear and Sahih Hadith of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) without needing to recourse to the Traditions of the Sahabah and the consensus of the Fuqaha? 
The literature of the non-followers is silent about present a Marfu’ Hadith about these issues.

A sincere advice to the non-followers
We don’t ask the non-followers why they act upon the Traditions of the Sahabah in these matters nor why do they support themselves with the consensus of the Fuqaha.  We will say that the way these issues are established by the Traditions of the Sahabah and they themselves are already following them, in the same way the issue of 20 Raka’at Taraweeh and they themselves are already following them, in the same way the issue of 20 Raka’at Taraweeh is established by the Traditions of the Shabah.
The way the Fuqaha agree on 20 Mithqaal to be the minimum amount of gold for Zakaat to become Wajib, in the same way the Fuqaha agree that Taraweeh is 20 Raka’at.
We advise them that the way in the earlier mentioned issues, the Traditions of the Sahabah and the consensus of the Fuqaha has been accepted, the same stance can be held for 20 Raka’at Taraweeh.  Also due to Talaqqi Bil Qubool, the Hadith of 20 Raka’at is strengthened.
If they cannot follow these basic principles, the path of moderation, then at least they should not say that 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh is wrong.
The practice of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is 20 Raka’at.  The Sahabah agreed on the number of Raka’at to be 20 and not one of them objected to it.  The expositors of the Islamic Law, the Fuqaha (jurists) have also clarified the same in canons of Fatawa and Fiqh.  The Muhadditheen who hold the treasures of Hadith in their bosoms acted upon this.  This was acted upon in each age.  In Makkah and Madina, even today 20 Raka’at Taraweeh is the custom.
After knowing all these details, no just person will deny 20 Raka’at Taraweeh.  If someone still deludes himself that Taraweeh is 8 Raka’at, at least they should not taunt those who offer 20 Raka’at of Taraweeh.
May Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) for the sake of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) guide us and all Muslims on to the path of guidance and guide us to perform good deeds in this blessed month.  Aameen.

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