Wednesday, 13 June 2012

Fatiha, 3 days, 10 days and 40 days

Fatiha, 3 days, 10 days and 40 days

To pass on the reward of physical and financial ibaadat to other Muslims is permissible, and the thawaab reaches the person whom it is passed to. This is proven from the Quran, Hadith aod rulings of the Jurists (Fuqahaa). The Holy Quran has ordered Muslims to make dua for each other. Namaaz-e-Janaazah is made by Muslims for another Muslim. Hadrat Abu Hurairah رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ said to someone. “من یضمن لی منکم ان یصلی فی مسجد العشار رکعتین و یقول ھذہ لا بی ھریرۃ" Mishkaat, Baabul-Fitan. Baabu/-Malaahim, Section 2
Three important points emerge from this,
I. Completing physical ibaadat (namaaz with the intention of passing the reward, i.e. Isaal-e-Thawaab) for someone else is permissible.
2. Passing on the reward (Isaal-e-Thawaab) by mouth (i.e. saying, "O AlIah عزوجل! Give its reward to this certain individual.') is an excellent practice.
1 With the intention of blessings, to perform namaaz in Musjids associated to the pious elders is a means of reward.
With regards to financial ibaadat (e.g. Zakaat) and the collection of both physical and financial ibaadat (e.g. Hajj), if a person says to another, "Give out Zakaat on my behalf," the latter may do so. If a person with wealth does not have the strength to complete the Hajj, he may arrange for another to perform Hajj-e­Badal for him. The reward of every act of worship definitely reaches the correct person. This is akin to giving my wealth to another, who then becomes the owner of it,
Yes, the difference between wealth and thawaab is that distributed wealth no longer remains with you and the amount becomes less with every added person it is shared with. However, if you pass on thawaab to a few people, each one of them receives the complete reward (including you). This can be understood through the following example - if someone teaches a few people the Holy Quran and all attain its knowledge, still too will the teacher not lose his knowledge. Refer to Shaami, Vol. I,
Discussion on the Dafn (Burying) of the Deceased. This is why taking a gift from a minor (Naa-Baaligh) child is prohibited yet taking thawaab isn't. Some people say that thawaab doesn't reach anyone because the Holy Quran states, "Only that which a person has done himself is beneficial or harmful to him," 10.1 and "A human receives only that which he himself bas done." 10.2
According to them, these Ahadith establish that the actions of others arc not beneficial to an individual. This is totally incorrect because the ' ل' here is for ownership, meaning the deeds of a human are solely in his ownership and are worthy of being trusted. Hoping that Isaal-e-Thawaab will be made and forsaking one's own deeds is incorrect. Who knows if anyone will make Isaal-e- Thawaab or not? So, trust your own deeds and do not neglect completing them. -Tafsen Khazaainul-Irfaan, etc.
Another common objection is that this order was from the scriptures (saheefas) of Hadrat Ibrahim علیہ السلام and Hadrat Musa علیہ السلام , not Islam (it was merely quoted here), or that this ayat has been made inapplicable (mansookh) by this verse, “ اتبعتھم ذر یتھم بایمان” This is the verdict of Hadrat Abdullah ibn Abbas رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہwhich is why Muslim infants will enter Jannat through the means of their parents. Without having done any deed, they will attain rank. - Jumal, Khaazin
There are many interpretations like these for this verse. Fatiha, Teeja (Fatiha made on the 3rd day after a person's death), Daswaa (the l0th day after Chaliswaa (on the 40 day after), etc. are all branches of lsaal-e-Thawaab. Only the following transpires and makes up Fatiha: Recitation of the Holy Quran, which is a physical act of worship (ibaadat), and Charity, which is financial ibaadat. These are collected and their thawaab is passed on.
Under the ayat, “و ھذا کتاب انزلناہ مبارک” 10.4 Tafseer Roohul-Bayaan states, "It is narrated from Hadrat Aaraj رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہthat 4,000 angels say "Ameen" on the dua made after the completion of the Holy Quran's recitation. They then make dua for the reciter and ask for his forgiveness until either dawn or dusk."10.5
The above quotation appears in Imam Nawawi's رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ book, Kitaabul-Azkaar, Kitaabu-T'ilaawatil-Quran. It confirms that dua is accepted at the time of the Quran being completed (khatam). Isaal-e-Thawaab is also a dua. Thus, 1O complete the recitation of the Quran at that time is good. Ashiatul-Lam'aa states, "Charity should be given from the day the deceased pass away until seven days after." - Baabu Ziyaaratil-Quboor
The book further states. "On Thursday nights. the soul of the deceased returns to his home to see whether people give out charity on his behalf or not." -Ibid
This reveals the source of the practice in some areas of continuously giving out charity in the form of rotis from the day of demise until the seventh day after.
Constantly making Fatiha is also sourced from this. The Holy Prophet" gave out charity on behalf of Ameer Harnzaرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہon the 3rd, 7th and 40th day, as well as on the 6lh and 12th month subsequent to his demise. - Anwaare-Saatia, Pg. 145. Marginal notes on the book. Khazaanatur-Riwaayat
This is the source for Fatiha on the 3" day (Teeja), after 6 months (Shashmaahi) and a full year afterwards (Barsi).
At the time of completing the Holy Quran (Khatmul-Quran), Hadrat Anas رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ used to gather his family members and make dua. Hakeem ibn Utba states that Mujaahid and his slave, Ibn Ahi Luhaaha, gathered people together and said, "We have called you because we are completing the Holy Quran today and dua is accepted at the time of Khatmul-Quran." It has been authentically narrated from Hadrat Mujaahid رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ that the Pious elders used to call gatherings of people at the time of Khatmul-Quran and say, "Mercy descends in this time." - Kilaabul­Askaor, Baabu Tilaawatil-Quran
Thus, the gatherings of Teeja (3rd Day) and Chaliswaa (40th) is the practice of the pious predecessors. Durre-Mukhtaar states. "If a person recites Surah Ikhlaas 11 times and conveys its reward to the deceased, all of the deceased equally receive the thawaab.'10.8-Baobu-Dafn, Qiraat IiI-Mayyit
Under the above extract. Shaami states, "Whatever is possible to be read from the Quran should be recited. Also, Surah Fatiha, the initial ayats of Surah Baqarah, Ayatul-Kursi, the final ayats of Surah Baqarah, Surah Yaseen, Mulk, Takaasur and Ikhlaas, either II, 7 or ) times. Should be recited and then said afterwards, ''O Allahعزوجل! Convey the reward of whatever I have recited to [so­-and-so]" 10.9
These extracts explain the complete procedure of the contemporary method of malting Fatiha, which is reciting the Holy Quran from different places and then making dua for the Isaal-e- Thawaab. Lifting the hands in dua is Sunnat, so the hands should he lifted in the dua of Isaal-e-Thawaab as well. In short, the current method of Fatiha is clearly illustrated here. Fataawa Azeezia states. "Reciting the Qui-Sharif, Fatiha and Durood on the food for the niaz of Hadrat Imam Hasan رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ and Husain رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ is a means of blessings, and consuming it is good and allowed."­Pg.75
Shah Abdul-Azeez Muhaddith Dehlwi رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ writes, "If maleeda (a type of food) or milk is prepared and fed for the Fatiha of a pious person with the intention of Isaal-e-Thawaab, it is permissible and there is nothing wrong with it." Fataawa Azeezia, Pg. 41
Even the Teeja of Shah Waliyullah رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ (who the opposition accepts as their leader) took place. Shah Abdul-Azeez رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ mentions it in the following manner, "On the third day, there was such a major concentration of people that they were beyond count. There were 81 counted Khatams of the Holy Quran but definitely more than this amount. There is no estimation of how many times the Kalima Tayyiba was read." - Malfoozoat-e-Abdul-Azeez, Pg. 80

This proves the observance of Teeja and making the Khatarn of the Holy Kalaam of Allahعزوجل. The founder of Darul-Uloom Deoband, Maulwi Qaasim Nanautwi, رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہwrites, "The expression on the face of one of Hadrat Junaid's رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ. disciple's (mureed) changed. When he asked him regarding what had brought about this change in composure, the disciple explained through Mukaashifa (Unveiling of Sight), "I see my mother in Jahannam." At that time, Hadrat Junaid رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ had already recited the Kalima 105,000 times in aspiration of forgiveness found in some narrations concerning the recital of this amount of Kalima Sharif He inunediately conveyed the reward of this amount to this disciple's mother but did not inform him of this. As soon as he passed on the reward, he noticed the disciple's face turn bright. He asked about this and was told, "I see my mother in Jannat." Upon hearing this, Imam Junaid رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ said, "I learnt the authenticity of this young man's Unveiling of Sight (Mukaashifa) through the Hadith, and !he authentication of whatever the Hadith said was from it." - Tahzeerun-Naas, Pg. 24
This proves that the forgiveness of the deceased is what is hoped wbeu conveying the reward of 105,000 Kalima Sharif and this is what is read on Teejas (the 3rd day after one's passing away).
All of these extracts prove the permissibility of the common practices of Fatiha, Teeja, etc. Whether one recites Quranic ayats in Fatiba and thereafter lifts the bands to make dua for Isaal-e-Thawaab or recites the Holy Quran and Kalima Sharif on Teeja and prepares food to make niaz, all practices are establisbcd. What remains is lifting the bands for dua while food is in front of oneself. Then are various methods to this. In some places, food is prepared and fed to the poor first with Isaal-e-Thawaab being made afterwards, while in other places, Isaal-e­Tbawaab is made with the food being in front first and then fed to the people. Both methods are permissible and proven from the Ahadith. There are many narrations found in Mishkaat wherein it is stated that the Prophet" made dua for the host upon seeing the food. In fact, he even ordered that dua be made for the host after eating the meal provided by him. After eating, Sayyiduna Rasoolullahصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم used to say. “الحمد اللہ حمدا کثیرا طیبا مبار کا فیہ مکفی و لا مودع و لا مسنغنی عنہ ربنا” Mishkaat, Baabu Aadaabit-Ta'aam
This establishes that two things are proven from the Sunnah after eating.
I. Praising and thanking Allahعزوجل
2. Making dua for the host.
Both of these are included in Fatiha and are probably not refuted much by the opposition. Regarding food being present before oneself, many Ahadith have been recorded regarding this. Hadrat Abu Hurairah رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہstates that he came to the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم with some dates and asked him to make dua for barkat on them. The Messengerصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم of Allahعزوجل gathered them and made duo for barkat, 10.13-­Mifhkaat, Baabul-Mujizaat, Section 2
In the Battle of Tabuk, the Muslim army experienced a shortage of food. Rasoolullahصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم ordered the entire army to gather whatever food they had. The people brought what they could and the food was then placed on a spread tablecloth. The Holy Prophetصلی اللہ علیہ وسلمthen made duo on it and said, "Take and put it back in your containers." 10.14 - Mishkaat, Baabul-Mujizaat, Section 1
When the Noble Messengerصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم married Sayyidah Zainab رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہا ., Hadrat Umme Sulaimرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ prepared a little food for the wedding feast (Waleemah). However many people were invited. Rasoolullahصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم" placed his blessed hands on the food and recited something. 10.15 - Ibid
On the day of the Battle of Khandaq, Hadrat Jaabir رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ prepared a little amount of food and invited the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ علیہ وسلمto come and partake in it. When Rasoolullahصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم entered the house, kneaded dough was placed before him. He placed his blessed saliva in it and made duafor harkat. 10.16 -Ibid
There are many other narrations like these that can be presented. However, we shall make do with the above.
Alhamdulillah, now all procedures and parts of Fatiha have clearly been proven. There is nothing incorrect about it from even a rational perspective, because we have already explained that Fatiha is a collection of two ibaadats - recitation of the Holy Quran and charity (Sadaqah). When these two acts of worship are permissible separately, how can joining them be Haraam? Nowhere is eating Biryaani proven to be anything but Halaal. Why is this? Simple-Biryaani is a collection of rice. Meat.
Ghee, etc which are all individually permissible. Thus, whatever they combine to make is also Halaal. Yes when joining multiple Halaal things is known to be Haraam (e.g, being wed to two sisters at one time) or when, by joining two Halaal things together, something Haraam is produced (e.g. intoxication by combining liquids), then the product is undoubtedly Haraam. Here neither has recitation of the Holy Quran and the giving of charity been classified as Haraam by the Shariah, nor is the product that they produce something classified as Haraam. How then can this be impermissible?
Rasoolullahصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم stood before the slaughtered animal and said, "O Allahعزوجل! This Qurbaani is on behalf of my Ummat."
If a sheep dies by itself, the meat is considered carrion and Haraam. However, if this same dying animal had to be slaughtered with the name of Allahعزوجل it becomes Halaal and pure to consume. The Holy Quran is mercy and a cure for Muslims, “شفاء و رحمۃ للمومنین “10.17 so if by reciting it, the food became Haraam (according to you), why then is it a mercy? Definitely, the Quran Sharif is a mercy for Muslims but a pain and sickness for the Kuffaar. "Oppressors remain in harm due to it." 10.18 Due to the Quran being recited, they failed to benefit from the food.
Also, the person for whom dua is being made should be before oneself at the time of the supplication. The deceased is placed before in Salaatul-Janaazah because the dua is being made for him. What harm is now caused by placing food in front at the time of dua? Similarly, dua is always made while standing before the grave (Qabr).
After making Qurbaani on behalf of his Ummat, Rasoolullahصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم stood before the slaughtered animal and said, "O Allah عزوجل! This Qurbaani is on behalf of my Ummat." 10.19 Hadrat Ibrahim رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ also made dna with the Kaaba before him after he had completed building it. He said “ربنا تقبل منا”-Surah Baqarah, Verse 127
Even until today, dua is made with the animal of Aqeeqah being in front. So if food is placed in front for Fatiha and Isaal-e-Thawaab, what is wrong with doing so?!
Eating is commenced by saying "Bismillah", which is an ayat from the Holy Quran. If placing food before oneself and reciting the Holy Quran was prohibited, reading "Bismillah" would also have been disallowed.
The adopted leaders of the opposition also deem the modem method of Fatiha as permissible. Shah Waliyullah رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ writes, "Durood Sharif should be read ten times, followed by the entire Khatam of the Holy Quran. Thereafter, Fatiha for all the Khwajagaan of the Chishti Silsila should be made on a few sweetmeats," - AI­fnlibaah fil-Salaasili Auliya-Allahعزوجل
While answering a question once, he further stated. "If Fatiha of a Buzurg was made on some rice and milk, with these food items being cooked and eaten with the intention of conveying reward to his soul, and if it was made to the Buzurg (in this manner), then it is permissible and those with money (who are not in need) can also partake in the food," - Zubtatun-Nasaaiq, Pg, 132
The Murshid of Maulwi Ashraf Ali Thanwi and Rasheed Aluned Gangohi. Haaji Imdaadullah Muhaajir Makki رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ states. "There can be nothing said against the conveyance of reward {lsaal-e-Thawaab} to the souls of the deceased, If Isaal-e-­Thawaab is done with the belief of obligation or specification of it occurring only ina particular time or period, it is prohibited, However. if this is not the case and lsaal-e-Thawaab is appointed and completed for a convenient wisdom, there is no problem, e.g. the Jurists (Fuqahaa) have allowed specifying a particular Surah in uamaaz based on a wisdom {hikmat). This is the general practice of Mashaaikh in Tahajjud Salaah." - Faisla Haft-Mas'ala.

He further writes, "Intention from the heart is only sufficient in namaaz. However, for the heart and tongue to both be in accordance is better for the public, Thus, if it is said, "O Allahعزوجل Convey the reward of this food to (so­-and-so]", here too is this better, After this, based on the mind and heart concentrating more when that for which dua is made is present, people began placing the food in front, and it was then realized that with this dua, it will be more effective if some recitation of Allah’sعزوجلKalaam (i.e. the Holy Quran) is also made so that there is more hope in the acceptance of the supplication and the reward of this recitation may also be conveyed, This will be the completion of two acts of worship (Jamaa bainal-Ibaadatain)." - Ibid
Haaji lmdaaduIllah Sahib also رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہwrites, "The Gyarwee of Huzoor Ghaus-e­Paak رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہFatiha on the 10 days, 20 days, 40 days, 6 months.
1 year, etc, the Tausha of Shaikh Abdul-Haqq رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ, the Sehmani of Hadrat Bu Ali Shah Qalandar رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ the Halwa of Shab-e-Baraat (the 15th of Shabaan) and all other methods and practices of Isaal-e-Thawaab are based on this rule." -Ibid
These writings of the Peer Sahib have conclusively decided the matter. Alhamdulillah, Fatiha has been proven through both transmitted and rational proofs, as well as from the writings of the opposition.
OBJECTION 1: Many Jurists have prohibited the preparing of food for the deceased on the 3rd and 71hday. Refer to Shaami and Alamghiri. Even Bazaaziya bas said, "Cooking food is not allowed after even a week." 10.22
Fatiha after a year (Barsi) or 40 days (Chaliswaa), etc. all fall under this. Qaadbi Tbanaullah Paani Pattiرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ writes in his will, "Also, the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ علیہ وسلمA bas said, "Food for the deceased makes the heart become lifeless," etc.
Answer - The Jurists have not prohibited Isaal-e-Thawaab for the deceased. What they have prohibited is something entirely different - family and friends taking food on the name of the deceased (for them to be saved from the taunts of people, the Teeja, Daswa, etc. for the deceased is made by mass-invitation of family and friends for name and fame to partake in the food). This is not permissible because it was done for popularity, while the time following a death is not for the purpose of show.
The poor and needy being fed after making the Fatiha of Isaal-e-Thawaab is allowed by all. Allama Shaami رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ states, "To accept an invitation from the bereaved is Makrooh because inviting for food takes place on happy occasions, not on instances of grief."10.24-Raddul-Muhtaar,Vol.1, Kilaabul-Janaaiz, Baabud-Dafn
''To accept an invitation" refers to the family and friends preparing food in trying to impress others. He further states. "All of these actions occur solely for show.
Therefore abstaining from them is required because they do not intend Allahعزوجل pleasure with their doings. 10.25 -Ibid
This clearly proves that giving invitations to family and friends boastfully and in pride is prohibited. However he alsoرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہwrites, "If the bereaved family prepare food for the poor, this is good."I0.26 -Ibid
This proves the permissibility of Fatiha.
Saying Qaadhi Thanaullah Paani Patti رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ stopped his Teeja and Daswaa is completely correct. What are worldly traditions? Women gathering on the Teeja to cry, lament and wait loudly - all of which are undoubtedly Haraam. This is why he said that consolation (taziyat) is not permissible for more than three days.
Nowhere has Isaal-e- Thawaab or Fatiha been mentioned here. The object is that mourning (maatam) should not be made.
Unfortunately, I have not come across the cited Hadith anywhere ("Food of the deceased causes the heart to become lifeless"). If this is a Hadith, what would those Ahadith wherein inclination is made towards giving out charity on behalf of the deceased mean? You also say that it is acceptable to give charity on behalf of the deceased without the specification of a date. Who will eat this charity? Will the hearts of the people who eat it die? Will angels descend to eat it?
Rule - Food of the Fatiha for the deceased should be fed to the poor and needy only. Alahazrat Imam Ahmad Raza Khan رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ has written a complete treatise on this topic {Jaliyus-Saut lin-Nahyid-awaat anil-Mayyit). In fact, those who have witnessed it bare testimony that Alahazrat رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ himself never took paan or used the bulla of the bereaved home he visited. In his will (wasaya), he wrote, ''The food of my Fatiha should strictly be given to the needy and poor."
If the food of the Fatiha for the deceased is prepared from one's estate, it must be bared in mind that the Fatiha should not be made from the share of an absent or minor (Naa-Baaligh) inheritor. In other words, the estate of the deceased should first be distributed and only then can a mature (Baaligh) inheritor complete these good works. Otherwise, this food will not be permissible for anyone to eat because the consent of the owner is unfound in this situation and the wealth of a minor has been used. Both of these are disallowed. This has to be bared in mind.
OBJECTION 2: Appointing a date for Fatiha is not permissible. Specifying or days and dates, e.g. 3 days, 10 days, 40 days, Gyarwee (11th), etc. is utter nonsense. The Holy Quran states, "Muslims abstain from absurdity." 10.27 ­Surah Muminoon, verse 3
Isaal-e-Thawaab should be done as soon as possible. Why should the third day be waited for?
Answer - The response to specifying a date or day has already been given in the discussion of Standing in Meelad. The only intent and object behind appointing a date or day for a permissible work is so that all people may gather can complete it together. If a specific time is not appointed at all, this deed cannot be satisfactorily completed. This is why Hadrat Abdullah ibn Mas'ood رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ specified Thursday for his discourses. When people requested him to lecture every day, he replied, "I do not wish to place you in difficulty." -Mishkaat, Kitaabul-llm
Even Bukhari Sharif has a chapter which discusses the permissibility of appointing times. This is only done for ease. Today, Jalsas, exams, vacations, etc. are all appointed and planned in Madrassahs so that people may reach the Madrassahs without being called every year. Indeed, this is their only intention in this matter.
Now remains the question: "Why have these particular dates been fixed?" The reason behind fixing the 11th date is that, in all the departments of Islamic kings and Rulers, salaries used to be given on the 10th day after the sighting of the moon. All of the workers used to wish that the initial share of their salaries be spent on the Fatiha of Huzoor Ghause-Paakرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ , Thus, they would bring some sweetmeats home in the evening after work and the Fatiha was made after Maghrib (the 11th night). The practice became so famous that this Fatiha became known as Gyarwee (11) Sharif. Now, on whatever date or day the Fatiha of Huzoor Ghause-Azam رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ is made or a little money is spent on his name, it is popularly known as Gyarwee Sharif. Fatiha for Huzoor Ghause-Azam رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ is made throughout the month of Rabiul-Aakhir but all are called Gyarwee Sharif.

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